The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows:
The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...
The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows
The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region.
T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows:
Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...
The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:
stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum
stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour marke...
Successful treatment of thyroid malignancies highly depends on accurate preoperative staging.
Ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies; CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodu...
The TNM system has been widely adopted in many areas as a replacement for idiosyncratic disease specific systems. The number of Ts Ns and Ms depend on the tumour/site but in general:
Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed
T0: no evidence of primary tumour
Tis: carcinoma in situ...
The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischaemic stroke.
large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)*
cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)*
small-vessel occlusion (lacune)*
stroke of other determined aetiology *
Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.
staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis
staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter
staging of transitional cel...