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Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis

Developmental stages of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis take place in a number of predictable steps.  Fusion of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis was well underway by the age of 15 years and is complete by 17-18 years.  Fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly. Persistence of a ...

Grading of diffuse axonal injury

Grading of diffuse axonal injury has been described histologically according to the anatomic distribution of injury, which correlated with outcome 1-3. The classification was first proposed by Adams in 1989 4 and divides diffuse axonal injury (DAI) into three grades: grade I: involves grey-whit...

Modified Ringertz grading system for diffuse astrocytomas

The modified Ringertz grading system has historically been one of the more frequently used grading systems for diffuse astrocytomas, but has not essentially been replaced by the WHO grading system. Unlike the WHO grading system and St Anne-Mayo grading system (also known as the Dumas-Duport gra...

Moyamoya staging (Suzuki)

Suzuki and Takaku first described moyamoya and its staging in 1969. Stage I "narrowing of the carotid fork" * narrowed ICA bifurcation Stage II "initiation of the moyamoya" dilated ACA, MCA and narrowed ICA bifurcation with moyamoya change Stage III "intensifica...

Rhabdomyosarcoma staging

Staging of rhabdomyosarcoma is based on the Lawrence/Gehan Staging System which comprises of a combination of pretreatment staging and postoperative clinical grouping. Stage stage I: orbit, eyelid, head and neck (excluding parameningeal), genitourinary (non-bladder, non-prostate), N0 or 1, M0 ...

Staging of retinoblastoma

A number of systems have been devised to stage retinoblastoma, with various end-points, and multiple systems are often used concurrently. The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with external beam radiotherapy 3. Mo...

Toast classification in acute ischemic stroke

The TOAST (trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment) classification denotes five sub types of ischaemic stroke. large-artery atherosclerosis (embolus / thrombosis)* cardioembolism (high-risk / medium-risk)* small-vessel occlusion (lacune)* stroke of other determined aetiology * stroke ...

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