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9 results found

Anal cancer staging

The accepted TNM staging of anal cancer is as follows 1: Primary tumour (T) TX: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour >2 cm but <5 cm in greatest dimension T3: tumour >5 ...

Colorectal cancer staging

There are two main colorectal carcinoma staging schemes. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system, but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Duke's (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: though muscularis propria sta...

Dukes staging system

The Dukes staging system is a classification system for colorectal cancer. This system is now mainly of historical interest as it has largely been replaced by the TNM staging system. It is not recommended for clinical practice. Dukes A: invasion into but not through the bowel wall (90% 5 year s...

Extramural vascular invasion

Extramural vascular invasion (EMVI) is the direct invasion of a blood vessel (usually a vein) by tumour. In rectal cancer, this can occur on a macroscopic level and be detected on staging MRI. It is a significant prognostic factor, being a predictor of haematogenous spread.  Radiographic featur...

Gastric metastases

Gastric metastases are rare, found in less than 2% of patients who die of a carcinoma 6. Epidemiology Usually affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Affects males and females equally without predilection. Clinical presentation The patient may be asymptomatic, but the most common sig...

Necrotising enterocolitis staging

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) can be staged into three groups, helping to guide appropriate treatment. In general stage I and II are managed medically, whereas stage III is managed surgically. stage I clinical signs lethargy, temperature instability, apnoea, bradycardia emesis, abdominal d...

Oesophageal cancer staging

Oesophageal cancer staging can depend slightly on whether the tumour is squamous cell or adenocarcinoma subtype. Due to the lack of a serosal layer, oesophageal cancer often tends to have mediastinal spread at the time of diagnosis. Staging TNM staging T staging Tx: primary tumour cannot be...

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma staging

Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system. Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...

Rectal cancer staging

Staging strongly influences the success of, and rate of local recurrence following rectal cancer resection. In rectal cancer, pre-treatment MRI is the evaluation of choice, guiding surgical and non-surgical management options.  TNM staging See: TNM staging system for a general description. Pr...

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