Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

14 results found
Article

Cervical lymph node staging

Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. TNM nodal staging Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
Article

Classification of antrochoanal polyps

CT is the modality of choice for assessment of antrochoanal polyps. A classification system has been proposed:  Stage I : strictly an antronasal polyp Stage II : if the polyp extends to the nasopharynx and the accessory ostium of the maxillary sinus is occluded fully by the neck of the ACP St...
Article

Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging

Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system. TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) T1: limited to 1 subsite AND tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension T2: extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or tumour size betw...
Article

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging

Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
Article

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is staged using the TNM staging system with derived stage groupings.  TNM staging Primary tumour (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ T1: tumour is confined to the nasopharynx T2: tumour extends to soft...
Article

Olfactory neuroblastoma (staging)

Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al in 1976 1. group a: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity group b: tumour is limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses group c: tumour extends beyond the nasal cavit...
Article

Oral cavity

The oral cavity is the most proximal portion of the aerodigestive tract, and is continuous posteriorly with the oropharynx.   Gross anatomy The oral cavity includes the lips anteriorly and extends to a ring of structures (circumvallate papillae, anterior tonsillar pillars, soft palate) that di...
Article

Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas

Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and relies on identification of local tumour extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.  The stagin...
Article

Staging of retinoblastoma

A number of systems have been devised to stage retinoblastoma, with various end-points, and multiple systems are often used concurrently. The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with external beam radiotherapy 3. Mo...
Article

Staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

Staging of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma uses the TNM staging system. Primary tumour staging (T) Tx - tumour cannot be assessed T0 - no evidence of primary tumour Tis - carcinoma in situ T1 - tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2 - tumour greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm i...
Article

T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity

The T staging for a tumour in the oral cavity is as follows: Oral cavity The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferio...
Article

T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour

The T staging of a hypopharygeal tumour is as follows Definition The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateraland posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region. T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension T2: tumour...
Article

T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx

The T staging of a tumour in the oropharynx is as follows: Definition: The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferiorsurface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posteriortonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior ...
Article

Thyroid cancer staging

Successful treatment of thyroid malignancies highly depends on accurate preoperative staging. Ultrasound and ultrasound guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies; CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodu...

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