Cervical lymph node staging is important in a variety of tumours, especially squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
TNM nodal staging
Nodal staging is the same for squamous cell carcinomas of most regions of the upper aerodigestive tract of the head and neck, including those of the of t...
The head and neck cancer therapy response interpretation (Hopkins criteria) is a qualitative system of interpretation for therapy response assessment using PET-CT.
Widely used options for therapy response assessment are clinical examination, histopathology, CT and MR imaging, howev...
Staging of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is performed using the TNM staging system.
Primary tumour staging (T)
limited to 1 subsite AND
tumour size ≤ 2 cm in greatest dimension
extends into adjacent subsite or area (larynx, oropharynx) and/or
tumour size betw...
T staging of hypopharyngeal tumours is as follows:
The hypopharynx includes the pyriform sinuses, the lateral and posterior hypopharyngeal walls, and the postcricoid region.
T1: tumour is limited to one subsite of the hypopharynx and 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
T2: tumour i...
Staging of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas is performed with cross-sectional imaging and relies on the identification of local tumour extent, and invasion of adjacent spaces. For a discussion of this entity please refer to the parent article: juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.
Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system and actual staging is subsite (see laryngeal subsites) specific for T1-3. A rough approximation for all subsites is
T1: limited to one subsite and normal cord mobility
T2: more than one subsite and impaired cord mobility (bu...
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma staging uses the TNM staging system with derived stage groupings.
Primary tumour (T)
Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed
T0: no evidence of primary tumour
Tis: carcinoma in situ
T1: tumour is confined to the nasopharynx
T2: tumour extends to soft ti...
Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al. in 1976 1.
group a: limited to the nasal cavity
group b: limited to the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
group c: extends beyond the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses:
T staging of oral cavity tumours is as follows:
The anterior border of the oral cavity is the junction of the skin and vermilionborder of the lip. The posterior border is formed by the junction of the hard and soft palates superiorly, the circumvallate papillae inferiorly, and the ...
T staging of oropharyngeal tumours is as follows:
The oropharynx includes the base of the tongue, the inferior surface of the soft palate and uvula, the anterior and posterior tonsillar pillars, the glossotonsillar sulci, the pharyngeal tonsils, and the lateral and posterior pharyng...
Retinoblastoma staging can be via a number of systems with various end-points and multiple systems are often used concurrently.
Reese Ellsworth classification
The Reese Ellsworth classification is assessed with fundoscopy and aims at predicting the chance of preserving the eye with ex...
Staging of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma uses the TNM staging system.
Primary tumour staging (T)
Tx - tumour cannot be assessed
T0 - no evidence of primary tumour
Tis - carcinoma in situ
T1 - tumour 2 cm or less in greatest dimension
T2 - tumour greater than 2 cm and less than 4 cm i...
Successful treatment of thyroid cancer highly depends on accurate preoperative staging.
Ultrasound and ultrasound-guided FNA or core biopsy remain the investigation of choice for diagnosing primary thyroid malignancies. CT and MRI are inferior to ultrasound for characterising thyroid nodules, h...