Cholangiocarcinoma staging is dependant on whether the tumour is primarily intrahepatic (ICC), hilar/perihilar (Klatskin), or extrahepatic.
Tumour resection is currently the most optimal treatment and the ability of the tumour to infiltrate longitudinally and radially along the biliary tree nec...
As expected there are a number of different staging systems for hepatoblastoma.
PRETEXT grouping system of paediatric liver tumours
not specific to hepatoblastoma; used in all paediatric liver tumours
Intergroup staging system
specific for hepatoblastoma (see below)
Hepatocellular carcinoma staging classifications supersede the typical TNM staging system seen in most other epithelial cancers, as the TNM staging system has been found to not be as prognostically useful for stratification of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Several substitute staging sy...
Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) staging uses a set of criteria to guide management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The classification takes the following variables into account 1,2:
The Okuda staging system was an advance on earlier hepatocellular (HCC) staging classifications, in that it incorporated both cancer-related variables and liver function related variables to determine prognosis 1:
disease involving >50% of hepatic parenchyma
albumin ≤3 mg/dL
The PRETEXT system proposed by the International Childhood Liver Tumours Strategy Group (previously called Société Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique - Epithelial Liver Tumour Study Group - SIOPEL) aims for staging and risk stratification of liver tumours at diagnosis.
It is used to descri...
Both endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas are now staged by a single pancreatic staging system.
Staging of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is with the TNM system, and as a majority of tumours are not-resectable, this is mostly achieved with imaging (typically CT scan) although laparo...