Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are the most common knee ligament injury encountered in radiology practice.
The ACL is the most commonly disrupted ligament of the knee, especially in athletes who participate in sports that involve rapid starting, stopping, and pivoting (e.g. s...
Cervical degenerative changes can be graded using a very old but reliable classification given by Kellgren et al. It is based on findings on a lateral cervical spine radiograph although it can also be applied to MRI evaluation of spine.
The key parameters are osteophyte formation, intervertebra...
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. This grading system is the modified Outerbridge grading system, which was devised for arthroscopy initially for assessment of chondromalacia patella, but then modified and extended for all...
The Enneking surgical staging system (also known as the MSTS system) is based on tumour grade, local spread and metastatic disease of malignant musculoskeletal tumours.
It does not classify skull tumours or marrow-originating tumours (e.g. lymphoma, plasmacytoma / multiple myeloma, Ewing sarcom...
Staging of Legg-Calve-Perthes syndrome refers to x-ray abnormalities, and represents 4 phases of the disease:
stage I: early
asymmetric femoral epiphyseal size (smaller on the affected side)
apparent increased density of the femoral head epiphysis
widening of the medial joint space
Chondromalacia can be divided into 4 grades by MRI, typically using fat saturated proton density sequences. The original Noyes grading system was based on arthroscopic findings. The modified Noyes system was published in 2009.
Grade 0: normal cartilage
Grade 1: increased T2 signal intensity of...
Mueller Weiss syndrome refers to a spontaneous adult onset osteonecrosis of the tarsal navicular. This syndrome is multifactorial and related to chronic loading on a suboptimally ossified navicular bone which is susceptible to central osteonecrosis due to its centripetal blood supply. It is dist...
Osteoarthritis of the hip can be graded according to severity on imaging.
Conventional radiograph grading
grade 0: normal
grade 1: possible joint space narrowing and subtle osteophytes
grade 2: definite joint space narrowing, defined osteophytes and some sclerosis, especially in the acetabul...
Osteochondritis dissecans can be classified at surgery into 4 stages:
lesion in continuity with the host bone
covered by intact cartilage
stable on probing
partial discontinuity of the lesion from the host bone
unstable on probing
fragment not dislocat...
Staging of rhabdomyosarcoma is based on the Lawrence/Gehan Staging System which comprises of a combination of pretreatment staging and postoperative clinical grouping.
stage I: orbit, eyelid, head and neck (excluding parameningeal), genitourinary (non-bladder, non-prostate), N0 or 1, M0