Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

17 results found
Article

Cervical cancer staging

Staging of cervical cancer can either be based on the TNM or FIGO system. Revised FIGO staging of cervical carcinoma 2009 8 stage 0: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HSIL or CIN III)  stage I: confined to cervix stage Ia: invasive carcinoma only diagnosed by microscopy. Ia1: stromal inva...
Article

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (also known as cervical dysplasia) is the potentailly premalignant stage in the dysplastic changes in the squamous epithelium of the cervix.  Grading of CIN is based on the degree of dysplasia seen in a sample of cervical tissue: CIN I similar to condy...
Article

Endometrial carcinoma staging

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.   Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low spec...
Article

Gleason score

The Gleason score determines the histological grading of prostate cancer. A score of 1 to 5 is assigned to each of the two largest areas of tumour involvement in the samples obtained, based on the worst feature. 1: least aggressive 5: most aggressive These two scores are then added together t...
Article

Neuroblastoma staging

There are two methods of neuroblastoma staging, one that is based on post-operative patients (INSS) and one developed for pre-treatment patients (INRGSS). Staging International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) This staging system is for post-operative patients and mainly for prognosis 1: ...
Article

Primary urethral cancer staging

Primary urethral cancer staging often uses the TNM system and is as follows: TNM staging Primary tumour staging (T) Tx: primary tumour cannot be assessed T0: no evidence of primary tumour Tis: carcinoma in situ Ta: non-invasive papillary, polypoid, or verrucous carcinoma T1: invasion of s...
Article

Prostate cancer staging

Prostate cancer staging can be thought of in terms of physical location or grading histologically. The TNM classification is used to determine spread, and the Gleason score is used to determine the histological type. Another staging system is the Jewett-Whitmore staging system. Additionally, th...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma staging (Robson)

Robson staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is simple but has largely been replaced by the TNM system (see renal cell cancer staging article). Robson staging revolves around the relationship to Gerota's fascia, involvement of renal vein and regional nodes. stage I: limited to kidney stage II:...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma staging (TNM)

Renal cell carcinoma staging using the TNM staging system for renal cell carcinoma. Older but still widely used system in some practices is the Robson staging system. TNM staging (7th edition) T T1 T1a: tumour confined to kidney, <4 cm T1b: ltumour confined to kidney, >4 cm but <7 ...
Article

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis

Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis arises most commonly at the distal end of the penile urethra with local invasion of the glans. In addition to TNM classification, the following staging is used: Staging Stage I: confined to the glans or foreskin Stage II: invasion of penile shaft Stage I...
Article

Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is staged
 using the TNM system (which has 
 replaced the previously widely used Jewett-Scott-Marshall tumour staging system. It is very 
 similar to staging
 of TCC of the renal pelvis and to staging
 of TCC of the ureter. TNM &...
Article

Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis

Transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is staged using the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the ureter. TNM staging T Ta: non invasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (non invasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epith...
Article

Staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter

Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter is staged using the TNM system and is very similar to staging of TCC of the bladder and to staging of TCC of the renal pelvis.  TNM staging T Ta: non invasive papillary tumour Tis: in situ (non invasive flat) T1: through lamina propria into sub-epit...
Article

Testicular cancer staging

The staging for testicular tumours is performed according to the TNM system with staging groupings. It can be remembered in its abbreviated form as:  stage I: confined to testis, epididymis, spermatic cord, scrotum stage II: lymph nodes involved but no distant metastases and serum tumour marke...
Article

Transitional cell carcinoma staging

Staging of transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary tract vary according to the location of the tumour, and are staged using the TNM staging system.  staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis staging of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter staging of transitional cel...
Article

Varicocele grading on colour Doppler ultrasound

Varicocele grading can be done variably. The most elaborate and accepted grading was given by Sarteschi, which is briefed below.  For a general discussion of this condition refer to the article: varicocele. Evaluation first do a baseline grey scale study in supine position and measure the dia...
Article

Wilms tumour staging

Wilms' tumour staging is largely anatomical and relates to the invasion and spread of the tumour. Where there is invasion or metastasises, prognosis is poorer. Wilms tumour, is one of the more common childhood malignancies. stage I confined to kidney complete resection possible stage II loc...

Updating… Please wait.
Loadinganimation

Alert accept

Error Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

Alert accept Thank you for updating your details.