Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

395 results found
Article

Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), also known as the testicular feminisation syndrome, results from end-organ resistance to androgens, particularly testosterone. AIS may be complete or incomplete with variable imaging findings.  Epidemiology The incidence may vary depending on whether it i...
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Low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis syndrome

Low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC) syndrome is one of the syndromes associated with ABCB4/MDR3 mutation. Characteristics of this syndrome include 1,2: intrahepatic microlithiasis/sludge symptomatic cholesterol stones with early onset (<40 years) recurrent symptoms post cholecys...
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Lemmel syndrome

Lemmel syndrome is defined as an obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary duodenal diverticulum (of the second part of the duodenum) compressing the intrapancreatic part of the common bile duct with resultant upstream dilatation of the extra- and intrahepatic bile ducts. Clinical presenta...
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Lateral meningocele syndrome

The lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies an...
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Facial colliculus syndrome

Facial colliculus syndrome refers to a constellation of neurological signs due to a lesion at the facial colliculus, involving: abducens nerve (CN VI) nucleus facial nerve (CN VII) fibres at the genu medial longitudinal fasciculus Clinical presentation lower motor neuron facial nerve palsy ...
Article

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory bone disorder seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion once underlying infection has been ruled out. Epidemiology There is a female predominance, with 85% of cases reported i...
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Thoracic outlet syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compre...
Article

Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome

Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) or Bean syndrome, is a rare sporadic syndrome characterised by multifocal venous anomalies. Patients often have multiple soft blue skin lesions associated with multiple bowel venous malformations, which could lead to lower gastrointestinal bleeding.  Path...
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Nutcracker syndrome

Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder and refers to the compression of the left renal vein between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walled veins into the collecting system with resultant haem...
Article

≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome​ a...
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Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Incontinentia pigmenti

Incontinentia pigmenti, also known as Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, is a rare condition that can affect many body systems, specially the skin. As an X-linked dominant genetic disorder, it occurs much more often in females than in males. Epidemiology Incontinentia pigmenti is rare and the true pre...
Article

Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome (CRS) represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The ...
Article

Kyphomelic dysplasias

Kyphomelic dysplasias (also known as "pseudocampomelia") is thought to be a heterogeneous class of "bent bone" skeletal dysplasias.  Entities included in a differential for the class are: congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal dysplasia, McKusick type) ...
Article

Post-pneumonectomy syndrome

Post-pneumonectomy syndrome is delayed complication of pneumonectomy characterised by respiratory compromise caused by severe mediastinal shift and counterclockwise rotation of the heart and great vessels. Epidemiology Rare delayed complication of pneumonectomy, which is more common on the rig...
Article

Bouveret syndrome

Bouveret syndrome refers to a gastric outlet obstruction secondary to impaction of a gallstone in the pylorus or proximal duodenum. Thus, it can be considered a very proximal form of gallstone ileus.  Clinical presentation Bouveret syndrome occurs most commonly in elderly women. The presenting...
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Asymmetric ventriculomegaly, interhemispheric cyst and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (AVID)

Asymmetric ventriculomegaly, interhemispheric cyst and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (AVID) is a triad of congenital cerebral anomalies. Radiographic features markedly asymmetric enlargement of the lateral ventricles may be the initial finding on routine fetal morphology ultrasound. inter...
Article

Medial medullary syndrome

Medial medullary syndrome, also known as Dejerine syndrome, represents less than 1% of brainstem stroke syndromes 1,2. Thrombotic or embolic occlusion of small perforating branches from vertebral or proximal basilar artery supplying the medial aspect of medulla oblongata cause this rare syndrome...
Article

Hemifacial microsomia

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly after cleft lip/palate. The condition may vary from mild to severe. Goldenhar syndrome has been described as a variant of HFM, in which vertebral anomalies and epibulbar dermoids were present. Terminology HFM is al...
Article

Trotter syndrome

Trotter syndrome relates to advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is the constellation of: unilateral conductive hearing loss due to middle ear effusion trigeminal neuralgia due to perineural spread soft palate immobility
Article

Dressler syndrome

Dressler syndrome (DS) is a delayed immune-mediated or secondary pericarditis developing weeks to months after a myocardial infarction (MI). Terminology Dressler syndrome is not to be confused with pericarditis epistenocardica (which is seen earlier in the post-MI period) and is considered a r...
Article

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state that occurs secondary to the inability of the posterior circulation to autoregulate in response to acute changes in blood pressure. Hyperperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood brain barrier results in vasogenic o...
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 1

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is a multisystem neurocutaneous disorder, the most common phakomatosis, and a RASopathy. Additionally, it is also one of the most common inherited CNS disorders, autosomal dominant disorders and inherited tumour syndromes....
Article

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, previously known as LEOPARD syndrome (LS), is a rare autosomal dominant RASopathy that has many similarities to Noonan syndrome. Clinical presentation Despite a change in formal name, the 'LEOPARD' acronym is still useful to summarise the clinical feat...
Article

Hamman syndrome

Hamman syndrome, also known as Macklin syndrome, refers to spontaneous pneumomediastinum along with subcutaneous emphysema. Epidemiology It is a rare entity most often encountered in young adults. It is a known entity peri- and postpartum 3. Clinical presentation The condition is most common...
Article

Parry-Romberg syndrome

Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS), also known as progressive facial hemiatrophy (PFH), is a rare progressive craniofacial disorder (phakomatosis). It is classically characterised by a slow progressive degeneration (atrophy) of the soft tissues of half of the face (hemifacial atrophy). This involves ...
Article

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), previously known as the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a small to medium vessel necrotising pulmonary vasculitis. It is also classified under the spectrum of eosinophilic lung disease and as a type of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. ...
Article

Subclavian steal syndrome

Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) and subclavian steal phenomenon both result from occlusion or severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery resulting in retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. Terminology Subclavian steal phenomenon refers to steno-occlusive disease of the pro...
Article

Aicardi syndrome

Aicardi syndrome is a rare severe developmental disorder. It results from an X-linked genetic defect that is fatal in males and therefore only manifests in females (except for rare 47-XXY cases). Clinical features The typical presentation in infancy is with a triad of: infantile spasms: salaa...
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Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome

Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) refers to the development of a perihepatitis in association with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).  Epidemiology The prevalence in adults with mild to moderate PID (gonorrhoic) may approximate 4% 10. The prevalence may be higher in genital tuberculosis 12. It ...
Article

Asherman syndrome

Asherman syndrome, also known as uterine synechiae, is a condition characterised by the formation of intrauterine adhesions, which are usually sequela from injury to the endometrium, and is often associated with infertility. Epidemiology There is a tendency for the condition to develop soon af...
Article

Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome

Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome is a condition caused by the deletion of a short portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 1 at a locus called q21.1. The disorder demonstrates a heterogenous spectrum of manifestations including delayed milestones, learning difficulties, physical anomalies, c...
Article

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
Article

Marchiafava-Bignami disease

Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare CNS disorder usually seen in the context of alcoholism and malnutrition. The condition classically involves the corpus callosum with necrosis and demyelination.  Epidemiology MBD is in most instances seen in chronic alcoholics, and as such the epidem...
Article

Neurocutaneous melanosis

Neurocutaneous melanosis or neurocutaneous melanomatosis, is a rare sporadic phakomatosis characterised by multiple congenital cutaneous nevi and meningeal melanocytosis / meningeal melanomatosis.  Epidemiology Neurocutaneous melanosis tends to be diagnosed in the first few years of life with ...
Article

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
Article

Adie syndrome

Adie syndrome was named after the British physician and neurologist William John Adie (1886 - 1935).  It consists of a classic triad of: diaphoreseis absent deep tendon reflexes, e.g. ankle jerk an Adie pupil: tonically dilated and responds poorly or not at all to light It is thought to res...
Article

Susac syndrome

Susac syndrome (SS), also known as SICRET syndrome (small infarctions of cochlear, retinal and encephalic tissue), is a rare syndrome typically affecting young to middle-age women that is clinically characterised by the triad of acute or subacute encephalopathy, bilateral sensorineural hearing l...
Article

Cubital tunnel syndrome

Cubital tunnel syndrome is a type of ulnar nerve compression neuropathy which can occur from a pathological compression of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel. Epidemiology It is the second most common peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity 1,3. Clinical presentation Ulnar nerve comp...
Article

Gradenigo syndrome

Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of: petrous apicitis abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...
Article

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (cutaneous manifestations)

Cutaneous manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), or von Recklinghausen disease, are the heralding features of this multisystem neurocutaneous disorder, which is the most common phakomatosis. Nowadays genetic testing permits the laboratory diagnosis of NF1 in as many as 95%, although ...
Article

Neuroferritinopathy

Neuroferritinopathy, also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2 (NBIA type 2), is a disorder of iron metabolism caused by a mutation in the ferritin light chain 1 gene (FTL1) on chromosome 19. Epidemiology Neuroferritinopathy is a rare disorder first described in 2001 ...
Article

HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a rare condition characterised by short-trunk dwarfism secondary to developmental anomalies of the vertebrae and ribs. Previously the condition Jarcho-Levin syndrome (also known as spondylothoracic dysostosis) was grouped together with spondylocostal dysostosi...
Article

Carcinoid syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome refers to a spectrum of symptoms that result from excessive hormone (mainly serotonin) secretion.  Epidemiology Occurs equally between the sexes, most commonly in the 40-70 year age group 3. Clinical presentation Diarrhoea is the most common and earliest symptom but others...
Article

Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
Article

Zinner syndrome

Zinner syndrome is a triad of Wolffian duct anomalies that includes unilateral renal agenesis, ipsilateral seminal vesicle cyst, and ejaculatory duct obstruction 1. Clinical presentation Patients are typically diagnosed at 3rd or 4th decade of life and often present with perineal pain, recurre...
Article

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease with autosomal dominant inheritance of defect in fibrillin 1 gene. The affected patients are tall with long disproportionate extremities and have pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly, and may also experience upward and lateral optic lens dis...
Article

Midaortic syndrome

Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterised by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Clinical presentation The onset of symptoms is usually during young adulthood or childhood 2: hypertension (most comm...
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Iliotibial band syndrome

Iliotibial band (friction) syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain related to intense physical activity resulting in chronic inflammation. Epidemiology Commonly affect young patients who are physically active, most often long distance runners or cyclists. The exact prevalence is unknow...
Article

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome

Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome. KTS classically comprises a triad of: port wine nevi bony or soft t...
Article

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease or previously known as Samter syndrome or aspirin or analgesic-induced asthma refers to the constellation of 1-2: allergy to aspirin nasal polyposis / rhinosinusitis asthma Epidemiology In adults, prevalence can ran...
Article

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome

Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as haemangioma thrombocytopaenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumour is responsible for thrombocytopaenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive coagulopathy. Pathology Vasc...
Article

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an inherited condition which predisposes to a host of malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. It is considered the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer. Diagnosis requires evaluation using cl...
Article

Anterior choroidal artery syndrome

Anterior choroidal artery syndrome is a rare entity characterised by the triad of hemiplegia, hemianaesthesia and contralateral hemianopia as a result of cerebral infarction in the anterior choroidal artery territory. The syndrome may also be associated with neuropsychological disorders, includ...
Article

Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome (also known as the the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe) is a multi-system disorder characterised by anomalies primarily affecting the eyes, nervous system, and kidneys. Pathology It is an extremely rare, pan-ethnic, x-linked disease, with estimated prevalence in the general po...
Article

Acrodysostosis

Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterised by growth retardation, nasal hypoplasia, brachydactyly, midfacial deficiency, mental retardation and deafness. Pathology Most cases are sporadic. Few cases with autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. It is believed to occur...
Article

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome

Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterised by: multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw café au lait spots intellectual disability kyphoscoliosis hypogonadism or cryptorchidism ocular malformations cardiovascular malformations giant cell granuloma of the jaw History and...
Article

Wolman disease

Wolman disease is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in the deposition of fats in multiple organs.  Clinical presentation Patients with Wolman disease typically present during the first two months of life with failure to thrive, diarrhoea and vomiting. Abdominal di...
Article

Jacobsen syndrome

Jacobsen syndrome (also known as the chromosome 11q deletion syndrome) is a rare chromosomal anomaly that results from deletion of the terminal region of chromosome 11. It results in intellectual disabilities, a distinctive facial appearance and a variety of physical problems including heart def...
Article

Von Hippel-Lindau disease

Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3. Epidemiology The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
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Fahr syndrome

Fahr syndrome, also known as bilateral striatopallidodentate calcinosis, is characterised by abnormal vascular calcium deposition, particularly in the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nuclei, and white matter, with subsequent atrophy. It can be either primary (usually autosomal dominant) or se...
Article

Aase-Smith syndrome

Aase-Smith syndrome (or Aase syndrome) is an extremely rare congenital disorder. Clinical features congenital hypoplastic anaemia - fetal anaemia triphalangeal thumbs broad thumb abnormal clavicles cleft lip, cleft palate hypoplastic radii hydrocephalus (due to Dandy-Walker anomaly) joi...
Article

Radial tunnel syndrome

Radial tunnel syndrome is an entity that refers to entrapment of the radial nerve in the forearm, as it occurs in the supinator syndrome. Some authors believe this is an early form of the posterior interosseous nerve syndrome 5. Clinical presentation The syndrome is characterized by pain along...
Article

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), previously known as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder causing involuntary spasticity and progressive dementia. It is a subset of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). Clinical presentation D...
Article

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome refers to an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve or of its branches within the tarsal tunnel. This condition is analogous to carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are pain and paresthesia in the toes, sole, or heel and the...
Article

Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) results from loss of plasma proteins in the urine and characterised by hypoalbuminemia, hyperalbuminuria, hyperlipidemia, and oedema. It may be caused by primary (idiopathic) renal disease or by a variety of secondary causes. Clinical presentation Patients present with ...
Article

Anti-synthetase syndrome

Anti-synthetase syndrome (ASS) is a systemic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease that is characterised by inflammatory myositis, polyarthritis associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-synthetase autoantibodies. Pathology ASS can result from autoantibodies to eight of the aminoacy...
Article

Pancoast syndrome

Pancoast syndrome results from involvement of the brachial plexus and sympathetic chain by a Pancoast tumour, or less commonly from other tumours involving the superior pulmonary sulcus. The syndrome consists of: shoulder pain C8-T2 radicular pain Horner syndrome The classical syndrome is un...
Article

Townes-Brocks syndrome

Townes-Brocks syndrome (Renal-Ear-Anal-Radial (REAR) syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by renal, anal, ear, and thumb abnormalities. Clinical presentation The major manifestations of this syndrome include: renal: displaced or rotated kidneys, horseshoe kidney, p...
Article

Antiphospholipid syndrome (pulmonary manifestations)

Pulmonary involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome is one of the most frequent arterial complications of antiphospholipid syndrome.  Pathology It is essentially related to pulmonary arterial microthrombosis and may cause a wide spectrum of conditions, which include 3-5: pulmonary thromboembol...
Article

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischaemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. Pathology Patients have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies cross-re...
Article

Achondrogenesis

Achondrogenesis refers to a group of rare and extreme skeletal dysplasias. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1:40,000 with no recognised gender predilection. Pathology It is classified as an osteochondrodysplasia, meaning deficiency of both bone and cartilage development.  Subtypes T...
Article

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) describes a clinical syndrome of impaired adduction in one eye with dissociated horizontal nystagmus of the other abducting eye, due to a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) ipsilateral to the eye unable to adduct. It is a common finding in multi...
Article

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia is a type of skeletal dysplasia that mainly involves the spine and proximal epiphyseal centres.  Clinical presentation short neck short trunk with protruding abdomen  normal IQ spine atlanto-axial instability craniovertebral junction stenosis platyspondyly l...
Article

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (CNS manifestations)

CNS manifestations of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) are rare. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), is a multi-system systemic necrotizing non-caseating granulomatous vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized arteries,...
Article

Waardenburg syndrome

Waardenburg syndrome is a rare congenital pigmentary disorder secondary to an abnormal distribution of neural crest-derived melanocytes during embryogenesis resulting in patchy areas of depigmentation. It is considered in the investigation of congenital sensorineural deafness. Epidemiology Est...
Article

Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a condition that results from retrograde flow through incompetent valves in ovarian veins. It is one of commonly missed and potentially treatable cause of chronic abdominal or pelvic pain.  Epidemiology It tends to be more common in multiparous, premenopausal wome...
Article

Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
Article

Amniotic band syndrome

Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises of a wide spectrum of abnormalities, all of which result from entrapment of various fetal body parts in a disrupted amnion. Due to the randomness of entrapment, each affected individual has the potential to form a unique deficit. Epidemiology The phenomen...
Article

Ortner syndrome

Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterised by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder. Pathology Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
Article

Löffler syndrome

Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (also known as Löffler syndrome) is a type of pulmonary eosinophilia that typically presents with transient radiographic infiltrates, minimal constitutional upset, and an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood. Pathology Aetiology The cause is not usually ...
Article

Inferior medial pontine syndrome

Inferior medial pontine syndrome, also known as Foville syndrome, is one of the brainstem stroke syndromes occurring when there is infarction of the medial inferior aspect of the pons due to occlusion of the paramedian branches of the basilar artery 1-3. This infarction involves the following 1-...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all aetiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as diffe...
Article

Babinski-Nageotte syndrome

Babinski-Nageotte syndrome is thought to be a brainstem stroke syndrome in between that of the hemimedullary syndrome (Reinhold syndrome) and the lateral medullary syndrome (Wallenberg syndrome) 1,2. It is considered to be a spreading of the “Wallenbergian” lateral lesion, often due to occlusion...
Article

Nothnagel syndrome

Nothnagel syndrome is a rare midbrain stroke syndrome that involves the tectum of the midbrain, including the quadrigeminal plate 1-4. Although it can be caused by stroke, especially haemorrhages rather than infarctions, it is more commonly seen due to neoplasm 1-4. Classically, the syndrome inv...
Article

Hemimedullary syndrome

Hemimedullary syndrome, also known as Reinhold syndrome, occurs as a result of the occlusion of the ipsilateral vertebral artery proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and its anterior spinal artery branches 1-3. This situation causes lateral medullary infarct and medial medullary ...
Article

Lateral medullary syndrome

Lateral medullary syndrome, (or Wallenberg syndrome) is an acute ischemic infarct due to occlusion of the vessels supplying the lateral medulla oblongata; most commonly occlusion of intracranial portion of the vertebral artery followed by PICA and its branches 1-3. This syndrome is characterised...
Article

Weber syndrome

Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke syndrome that involves the fascicles of the oculomotor nerve resulting in an ipsilateral CN III palsy and contralateral hemiplegia or hemiparesis 1-3. Using imaging alone, it is difficult to distinguish Weber from Benedikt syndrome, unless clear involvement o...
Article

Benedikt syndrome

Benedikt syndrome, or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a midbrain stroke syndrome that involves the fascicles of the oculomotor nerve and the red nucleus resulting in an ipsilateral CN III palsy and crossed hemiataxia and choreoathetosis 1-4. Using imaging alone, it is difficult to distinguish ...
Article

Lateral pontine syndrome

Lateral pontine syndrome, also known as Marie-Foix syndrome or Marie-Foix-Alajouanine syndrome, refers to one of the brainstem stroke syndromes which occurs due to occlusion of perforating branches of the basilar and anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA) arteries 1,2. This results in infarction of...
Article

Raymond syndrome

Raymond syndrome is a posterior circulatory stroke syndrome due to a lesion in the ventral medial mid-pons. It is an extremely rare condition, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. Clinical features Clinically, 2 subtypes have been reported 1: classic type abducens nerve ...
Article

Anterior cord syndrome

Anterior cord syndrome (also known as Beck's syndrome or anterior spinal artery syndrome) is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes, due to ischaemia/infarction of the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord, typically sparing the posterior third. Clinical presentation Patient presen...

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