Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

406 results found
Article

Poland syndrome

Poland syndrome refers to a congenital unilateral absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles and is a recognised cause of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax.  Epidemiology Poland syndrome is usually sporadic, although rare familial cases have been described 1. It is rare, with an estimat...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), recently referred also as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The diagnosis is made on the combined clinical, biochemical and sonographic grounds. The revised 2003 ASRM/ESHRE Rotterdam consensus cri...
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Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) refers to symptomatic compression or occlusion of the popliteal artery due to a developmentally abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery in relation to its surrounding structures such as with the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG) or less commonly ...
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Post ablation syndrome

Post-ablation syndrome occurs from 24 to 48 hours following ablation, and lasts no longer than 10 days1. It is believed to occur following cytokine release and tumor necrosis, causing patient fever and flu-like symptoms. If symptoms persist following 10 days after the procedure, alternate diagn...
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Post-embolisation syndrome

Post-embolisation syndrome (PES) is one of the commonest side effects of transarterial embolisation and chemoembolisation. It comprises of a constellation of fever, nausea/vomiting, and pain. It usually occurs within the first 72 hours after embolisation (liver lesion or uterine fibroids) and th...
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Posterior choroidal artery stroke

Posterior choroidal artery occlusion uncommonly presents as an isolated stroke syndrome.  It usually coexists with posterior cerebral artery and often superior cerebellar artery involvement.  When seen in isolation damage is characteristically limited to the: lateral geniculate body pulvinar ...
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Posterior cord syndrome

Posterior cord syndrome (also known as posterior spinal artery syndrome) is a rare syndrome associated with spinal cord injury. It is caused due to a lesion in the posterior column of spinal cord or occlusion of the posterior spinal artery. The syndrome is clinically characterized by isolated l...
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurotoxic state that occurs secondary to the inability of the posterior circulation to autoregulate in response to acute changes in blood pressure. Hyperperfusion with resultant disruption of the blood brain barrier results in vasogenic o...
Article

Post-pneumonectomy syndrome

Post-pneumonectomy syndrome is delayed complication of pneumonectomy characterised by respiratory compromise caused by severe mediastinal shift and counterclockwise rotation of the heart and great vessels. Epidemiology Rare delayed complication of pneumonectomy, which is more common on the rig...
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Post thrombotic syndrome

Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis due to valvular incompetence which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension. Epidemiology PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to half o...
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PPP syndrome

PPP syndrome is the extremely rare association of pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis. Epidemiology Most commonly affects middle-aged male patients with a history of heavy alcohol use 1,2.  Clinical presentation In the majority of cases, abdominal symptoms are mild or absent, makin...
Article

Pre-axial polydactyly

Pre-axial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Pre-axial polydactyly is less common than post-axial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Pathology Associations Pre...
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Primary progressive aphasia

Primary progressive aphasia was first described in 1982 and is the umbrella term for the language-variant frontotemporal dementias associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) 3. Clinical presentation It is an insidious disorder characterised by gradual impairment of speech and lan...
Article

Progeria

Progeria is a term used for any syndrome in which a person is prematurely aged, however, it most commonly refers to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Radiographic features Although the primary clinical manifestations of progeria include short stature and skin changes, the disease is...
Article

Pronator teres syndrome

Pronator teres syndrome (also called pronator syndrome) is one of three common median nerve entrapment syndromes; the other two being anterior interosseous nerve syndrome and the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome. It comprises a constellation of signs and symptoms that result from compressi...
Article

Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterised by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
Article

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome is a systemic condition charaterised by degeneration of elastic fibers. It has multi-organ manifestations. Epidemiology Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.  Clinical presentation Patients may prese...
Article

PTEN-related disease

PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) gene mutation is associated with a few conditions known as PTEN-related diseases, with relatively similar clinical and radiological manifestations. They include: Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba COLD syndrome Cowden syndrome Lhermitte-Duclos disease Those not f...
Article

Quadrangular space syndrome

Quadrangular space syndrome (QSS) is an uncommon diagnosis mainly because of lack of literature on the subject and possible misdiagnosis. Epidemiology QSS is present on ~1% of shoulder MRIs 6.  Clinical presentation Patients present with posterior shoulder pain and paresthesia over the later...
Article

Radial tunnel syndrome

Radial tunnel syndrome is an entity that refers to entrapment of the radial nerve in the forearm, as it occurs in the supinator syndrome. Some authors believe this is an early form of the posterior interosseous nerve syndrome 5. Clinical presentation The syndrome is characterized by pain along...
Article

Radiologically isolated syndrome

Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) is defined by MRI findings suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in asymptomatic ("clinically silent") patients. Radiological progression usually occurs in approximately 66% of patients with RIS, while ~ 33% per 5 year period will subsequently develop neuro...
Article

Raghib syndrome

Raghib syndrome is a rare developmental complex, which consists of persistence of the left superior vena cava along with coronary sinus ostial atresia and atrial septal defect. It has also been associated with other congenital malformations including ventricular septal defects, enlargement o...
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Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RMS), also known as herpes zoster oticus, is essentially shingles of the facial nerve. Latent infection is present in the geniculate ganglion with painful vesicles showing in the external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane and pinna associated with facial palsy. There may b...
Article

Raymond syndrome

Raymond syndrome is a posterior circulatory stroke syndrome due to a lesion in the ventral medial mid-pons. It is an extremely rare condition, with only a handful of cases described in the literature. Clinical features Clinically, 2 subtypes have been reported 1: classic type abducens nerve ...
Article

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a sterile inflammatory arthritis that follows an infection at a different site, commonly enteric or urogenital. It is classified as a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Terminology Reactive arthritis was formerly known as Reiter syndrome/disease, which is the...
Article

Rett syndrome

Rett syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disease seen in young girls in the 2nd to 4th months of life.  The majority of cases result from a mutation in the MECP2 gene; a more severe subset of the disease arises from a CDKL5 mutation1. Clinical presentation Following a period of normal develop...
Article

Rhupus syndrome

Rhupus syndrome is a term traditionally used to describe patients uncommonly having the coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Article

Right middle lobe syndrome

Right middle lobe syndrome refers to chronic right middle lobe collapse, without an obstructing lesion, and usually with associated bronchiectasis.  Epidemiology Right middle lobe syndrome is usually encountered in older adults, with a predilection for women (see Lady Windermere syndrome). It ...
Article

Roberts syndrome

Roberts Syndrome (RBS) (also known as Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome, pseudothalidomide syndrome, Appelt-Gerken-Lenz syndrome) is rare congenital malformation syndrome. It has an autosomal recessive inheritance. Clinical features general intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) post-natal grow...
Article

Robinow syndrome

Robinow syndrome is a rare heterogenous genetic disorder with at least two distinct forms. Clinical spectrum The syndrome can affects several systems which include: mesomelic limb shortening: mesomelia hemivertebrae characteristic facies anomalies fetal facies hypertelorism 3 frontal bos...
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Rosai-Dorfman disease

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes. Epidemiology The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years....
Article

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as Bow Hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.  It has many predisposing aetiologies, but is most often due to large osteophytes, atla...
Article

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a very rare genetic multi-system disorder primarily characterised by mental retardation, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, and distinctive facial features. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 100,000-125,000 live births 5. Clinical pres...
Article

Russell-Silver dwarfism

Russell-Silver dwarfism is a very rare syndrome characterised by: intrauterine growth restriction: tends to give an asymmetrical IUGR postnatal growth restriction relatively large calvarium: pseudohydrocephalus clinodactyly/clinobrachydactyly of the small finger a typical triangular type fa...
Article

Ruvalcaba syndrome

Ruvalcaba syndrome (also known as Ruvalcaba-Myhre-Smith syndrome) is one of a group of disorders related to congenital skeletal disturbance. It is characterized by: macrocephaly hypoplastic genitalia mental (not invariably) and physical retardation short stature peculiar facies micrognathi...
Article

Sakati-Nyhan syndrome

The Sakati-Nyhan syndrome, also known as Sakati-Nyhan-Tisdale syndrome or acrocephalosyndactly type III, is an extremely rare type of acrocephalopolysyndactyly. Its main features include: craniofacial defects congenital limb abnormalities congenital heart defects History and etymology It w...
Article

Sampson syndrome

Sampson syndrome refers to a type of superficial endometriosis, where multiple superficial plaques may be seen scattered in the peritoneum and pelvic ligaments. Clinical presentation The patient may present with non-specific abdominal pain. Radiographic features At laparoscopy, they are typi...
Article

SAPHO syndrome

The SAPHO syndrome is an acronym that refers to a rare condition that is manifested by a combined occurrence of 2 S: synovitis A: acne P: pustulosis  H: hyperostosis O: osteitis Epidemiology It classically tends to present in young to middle-aged adults. Presentation in the paediatric pop...
Article

Schimmelpenning syndrome

Schimmelpenning syndrome is a rare and variable congenital multisystem condition characterised by extensive linear naevi sebacei and abnormalities in different neuroectodermal organ systems.  Clinical presentation Classical triad including sebaceous nevi, seizures, and intellectual disability....
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Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare benign cause of acute or subacute small bowel obstruction. It is characterised by total or partial encasement of the small bowel within a thick fibrocollagenous membrane. Terminology The condition was originally termed abdominal cocoon. It has als...
Article

Sclerosteosis

Sclerosteosis is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia resulting in sclerosis and hyperostosis, particularly of the skull, mandible and tubular bones. It is closely related to Van Buchem disease 1. Epidemiology Sclerosteosis is a very rare disease, with only around 100 cases reported. Ther...
Article

Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic injuries associated with three-point seatbelts: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture
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Seckel syndrome

Seckel syndrome is an autosomal recessive congenital dwarfing disorder. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is ~ 1:10,000. There is no recognised gender predilection. Clinical features It is clinically characterised by many features including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) postnat...
Article

Segmental arterial mediolysis

Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognised vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal haemorrhage. It is characterised by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. I...
Article

Serrated polyposis syndrome

Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), also called hyperplastic polyposis syndrome, is characterised by the presence of multiple serrated polyps or a mixture of serrated and hyperplastic polyps, with the exact number required for diagnosis dependent on location and family history. SPS has an hetero...
Article

Sezary syndrome

Sézary syndrome (SS) is a type of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. It is sometimes considered an advanced and leukaemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). Clinical presentation It is clinically characterised by an extensive erythematous rash covering most of the body as well as presence of ma...
Article

Sheehan syndrome

Sheehan syndrome is a rare cause of pituitary apoplexy and hypopituitarism. It only occurs in postpartum females who experience large volume haemorrhage and hypovolaemic shock, either during delivery or afterwards. Clinical presentation pituitary failure 1 may be silent and present with dela...
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Shone syndrome

Shone syndrome is characterised by four congenital heart defects, largely multiple left sided obstructions:   supravalvular mitral membrane (SVMM)  subaortic stenosis (membranous or muscular) parachute mitral valve coarctation of the aorta
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Short rib polydactyly syndrome

Short rib polydactyly syndrome(s) (SRPS) comprise of a rare group of severe osteochondrodysplasias. There are four major recognised types present: type I: Saldino-Noonan type type II:: Majewski type type III: Verma-Naumoff type type IV: Beemer-Langer type There may also be other very rare t...
Article

SHORT syndrome

SHORT syndrome refers to an acronym which primarily comprises of the following features: S: short stature H: hyperextensibility of joints and/or inguinal hernia O: ocular depression R: Rieger anomaly T: teething delay In a addition to these there can be numerous associated minor features w...
Article

Shy-Drager syndrome

The Shy-Drager syndrome is a neurodegenerative disease, and one of the manifestations of multiple systemic atrophy (MSA). Terminology It is important to note that the current belief that olivopontocerebellar degeneration, Shy-Drager syndrome and striatonigral degeneration are different manifes...
Article

Silent sinus syndrome

The silent sinus syndrome represents maxillary sinus atelectasis that results in painless enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial asymmetry 1-3. Some authors restrict the term to patients with no history of sinusitis, trauma or surgery 2. Epidemiology Silent sinus syndrome usually presents in the ...
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Sinus tarsi syndrome

Sinus tarsi syndrome (STS) is the clinical syndrome of pain and tenderness of the lateral side of the hindfoot, between the ankle and the heel. Imaging often demonstrates the ligaments and soft tissues in the sinus tarsi are injured. Epidemiology Sinus tarsi syndrome has been described in danc...
Article

Sjögren syndrome

Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune condition of exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva. Epidemiology Sjögren syndrome is the second most common autoimmune disorder after rheumatoid arthritis. There is a recognised female predilection with F:M ratio of  ≈ 9:1. Patients typically present a...
Article

Slit ventricle syndrome

Slit ventricle syndrome is defined as the radiological appearance of slit-like ventricles on CT and MRI images in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Mild forms are seen in adults and more severe forms are seen in children. Patients must be symptomatic to be diagnosed with slit ventricle s...
Article

SMART syndrome

SMART syndrome, a catchy acronym for the otherwise unwieldy stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy, is an uncommon delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy.  Clinical presentation Patients usually present years after radiation therapy with prolonged stroke-like episodes...
Article

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) also known as 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.  Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at 1:20000-40000 live births. Prevalence may be greater in Nordic countries. Pathology The condition often results f...
Article

Snapping hip syndrome

Snapping hip syndrome is simply an audible snapping sound produced during motion of the hip. It has both intra- and extra-articular causes. Pathology Extra-articular causes lateral iliotibial band snapping over the greater trochanter (iliotibial band syndrome - not always audible) gluteus ...
Article

Sotos syndrome

Sotos syndrome it is an autosomal dominant syndrome considered as a form of cerebral gigantism, most characterised by the prenatal and postnatal overgrowth. Epidemiology There is no ethnic group predominance and has been detected throughout the world. The prevalence is not known, but is estima...
Article

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome

Spigelian-cryptorchidism syndrome is the association of Spigelian hernias and cryptorchidism in children.  Pathology It is reported that ~50% (range 28-75%) range of paediatric patients with Spigelian hernias will have ipsilateral cryptorchidism 1,2.  Along with Spigelian hernia and cryptorch...
Article

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI) can be traumatic or non-traumatic (i.e. neoplastic/stenosis) but the syndromes associated with spinal cord injury can be seen in all aetiologies. Injury to the spinal cord can be incomplete or complete and depends upon the mechanism of injury. This is important as diffe...
Article

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a rare condition characterised by short-trunk dwarfism secondary to developmental anomalies of the vertebrae and ribs. Previously the condition Jarcho-Levin syndrome (also known as spondylothoracic dysostosis) was grouped together with spondylocostal dysostosi...
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Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia is a type of skeletal dysplasia that mainly involves the spine and proximal epiphyseal centres.  Clinical presentation short neck short trunk with protruding abdomen  normal IQ spine atlanto-axial instability craniovertebral junction stenosis platyspondyly l...
Article

Stauffer syndrome

Stauffer syndrome is paraneoplastic nephrogenic hepatomegaly. It most commonly occurs in the setting of renal cell carcinoma, and is the enlargement the liver without hepatic metastases. It is a cause of cholestasis and cholestatic jaundice.  History and etymology It is named after Maurice H. ...
Article

Stevens Johnson syndrome

Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute inflammatory skin condition.  Terminology SJS is on a spectrum of disease with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) at the more severe end. Terminology depending on how much surface area is involved 1,2: SJS: <10% SJS-TEN overlap: 10-30% TEN: >30% Epi...
Article

Stewart-Treves syndrome

Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of post-mastectomy lymphoedema. It however only accounts for 10% of all angiosarcomas seen in the setting of chronic post-mastectomy lymphoedema.
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Stickler syndrome

Stickler syndrome refers to a group of disorders primarily affecting connective tissue. Pathology Several gene mutations have been idntified dependent on specific sub types which include: Stickler syndrome type I: COL2A1 Stickler syndrome type II: COL9A1 Stickler syndrome type III: COL11A1 ...
Article

Stiff person syndrome

Stiff person syndrome, previously known as stiff man syndrome, was first described in 1956 by Moersch and Woltman of Mayo Clinic 1 and is a very rare neuromuscular disease characterised by: progressive muscle stiffness of the spine and lower extremities muscle spasms triggered by external stim...
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Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis. Individuals with this condition can present with a cardiac murmur due to compression of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) 2.   There is questionable association with mitral valve prolapse 1. 
Article

Sturge-Weber syndrome

Sturge-Weber syndrome, or encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a phakomatosis characterised by facial port wine stains and pial angiomas.  It is part of a wide spectrum of possible phenotypes included in the craniofacial arteriovenous metameric syndrome (CAMS). Epidemiology Sturge-Weber syndr...
Article

Subclavian steal syndrome

Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) and subclavian steal phenomenon both result from occlusion or severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery resulting in retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. Terminology Subclavian steal phenomenon refers to steno-occlusive disease of the pro...
Article

Sulcal artery syndrome

Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Article

Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum leading to obstruction. It should not be confused wit...
Article

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome

Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is a recently described inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSC). Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10%...
Article

Superior vena cava obstruction

Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruct...
Article

Susac syndrome

Susac syndrome (SS), also known as SICRET syndrome (small infarctions of cochlear, retinal and encephalic tissue), is a rare syndrome typically affecting young to middle-age women that is clinically characterised by the triad of acute or subacute encephalopathy, bilateral sensorineural hearing l...
Article

Sweet syndrome

Sweet syndrome (acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis) is characterised by a constellation of clinical symptoms, physical features, and pathologic findings which include: fever neutrophilia tender erythematous skin lesions (papules, nodules, and plaques) a diffuse infiltrate consisting predo...
Article

Swyer-James syndrome

Swyer-James syndrome (SJS), also known as Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome and Bret syndrome, is a rare lung condition that manifests as unilateral hemithorax lucency as a result of postinfectious obliterative bronchiolitis.  Epidemiology The condition typically follows a viral respiratory infecti...
Article

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH or SIAD) was described in patients with lung cancer who developed hyponatraemia associated with continued urinary sodium loss. The result is often dilutional hyponatremia in which the sodium remains normal but total body fluid incre...
Article

Syndrome of the trigone

Syndrome of the trigone occurs when intracranial tumours that arise in the trigone of the lateral ventricle present with a distinctive constellation of signs and symptoms due to compression of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and the adjacent white matter of the parietal and posterior ...
Article

Syndromes with a vascular component

Ataxia-telangiectasia CREST syndrome Lemierre syndrome Maffucci syndrome PHACE syndrome Stewart-Treves syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome von Hippel-Lindau disease Wyburn-Mason syndrome
Article

Tarsal tunnel syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome refers to an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve or of its branches within the tarsal tunnel. This condition is analogous to carpal tunnel syndrome. Clinical presentation The most common symptoms are pain and paresthesia in the toes, sole, or heel and the...
Article

TAR syndrome

TAR syndrome stands for thrombocytopaenia with absent radius and as the name implies is primarily characterised by the following two features: fetal thrombocytopaenia absent fetal radii (bilaterally) with the presence of both thumbs Epidemiology The condition is extremely rare with an estima...
Article

Taussig-Bing anomaly

Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation and is one of the variants of double outlet right ventricle. It consists of transposition of the aorta to the right ventricle and malposition of the pulmonary artery with subpulmonary ventricular septal defect. History and etymology ...
Article

Terson syndrome

Terson syndrome refers to vitreous haemorrhage associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, however some authors include retinal haemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage. Epidemiology Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-5...
Article

Thoracic outlet syndrome

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture.  Clinical presentation Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compre...
Article

Top of the basilar syndrome

Top of the basilar syndrome, also known as rostral brainstem infarction, occurs when there is thromboembolic occlusion of the top of the basilar artery. This results in bilateral thalamic ischaemia due to occlusion of perforator vessels. Clinical presentation Clinically, top of the basilar syn...
Article

Townes-Brocks syndrome

Townes-Brocks syndrome (Renal-Ear-Anal-Radial (REAR) syndrome) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterised by renal, anal, ear, and thumb abnormalities. Clinical presentation The major manifestations of this syndrome include: renal: displaced or rotated kidneys, horseshoe kidney, p...
Article

Trotter syndrome

Trotter syndrome relates to advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and is the constellation of: unilateral conductive hearing loss due to middle ear effusion trigeminal neuralgia due to perineural spread soft palate immobility
Article

Trousseau syndrome

Trousseau syndrome is referred to by a number of names, such as migratory thrombophlebitis and cancer-associated thromboembolism, but is essentially the association of venous thrombosis provoked by a yet to be diagnosed malignancy.
Article

Turcot syndrome

Turcot syndrome is one of the variations in polyposis syndromes. Epidemiology Patients typically present in the second decade 3. Pathology Turcot syndrome  is characterised by: intestinal polyposis CNS tumours: most commonly glioblastoma or medulloblastoma Genetics It is thought to carry...
Article

Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome, also referred as 45X, is the most common of sex chromosome abnormalities in females.  Epidemiology The incidence is estimated at 1:2000-5000 of live births, although the in utero rate is much higher (1-2% of conceptions) due to a significant proportion of fetuses with 45X abor...
Article

Twin embolisation syndrome

The twin embolisation syndrome (TES) is a rare complication of a monozygotic twin pregnancy following an in utero demise of the co-twin. Pathology It was traditionally thought to result from the passage of thromboplastic material into the circulation of the surviving twin which causes ischemic...

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