Acrocephalosyndactyly syndromes (ACS) is a rare group of disorders collectively characterised by:
calvarial anomalies, e.g. craniosynostoses
digital anomalies, e.g. syndactyly
While there can be some overlap in features, they can be primarily classified into the following majo...
Allgrove syndrome (also known as triple A syndrome) is an autosomal recessive condition that consists of three main findings:
Alport syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease characterised by:
sensory neural hearing loss: typically high frequency 2
anterior lenticonus: most common ocular abnormality; may result in cataracts
perimacular pigmentary changes
flecks around the fovea 2...
Anterior cord syndrome (also known as Beck's syndrome or anterior spinal artery syndrome) is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes, due to ischaemia/infarction of the anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord, typically sparing the posterior third.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of vertigo. It occurs secondary to change in posture and typically is associated with nystagmus. The aetiology is thought to be due to changes of position of the otoliths in the inner ear, most commonly into the posteri...
Bogorad syndrome also known as the syndrome of crocodile tears, is characterized by residual facial paralysis with profuse lacrimation during eating. It is caused by a misdirection of the regenerating autonomic fibers to the lacrimal gland instead of to the salivary gland.
Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome, is a rare syndrome characterised by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation. Recently a discrete clinico-radiological entity has been described and named transient perivascular inflammation of the carotid artery syndrome (TIPIC syndrome) 14.
Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of children and young adults which primarily characterised by 1,4,6:
inflammatory eye disease (ocular keratitis, uveitis, scleritis, optic neuritis) 6
audiovestibular symptoms (similar to Meniere disease) 6
However, it can potentially affect a multitude of ...
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a severe postinfectious neurological disorder that presents with status epilepticus in a previously normal child (or less commonly adult) after a febrile illness.
FIRES has received several names in the literature:
Frontonasal dysplasia, also known as median cleft face syndrome, is a rare disorder characterised by midline defects involving the face, head, and central nervous system.
Frontonasal dysplasia is considered to be a very rare condition, with approximately 100 cases having been repo...
Goldenhar syndrome (also known as oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS), Goldenhar-Gorlin syndrome or facio-auriculo-vertebral dysplasia) is a complex congenital anomaly characterised by abnormalities of the ears, eyes and vertebrae.
The estimated incidence is at 1 in 3000-500...
Gradenigo syndrome consists of the triad of:
abducens nerve palsy, secondary to involvement of the nerve as it passes through Dorello canal
retro-orbital pain, or pain in the cutaneous distribution of the frontal and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve, due to extensi...
Heerfordt(-Waldenström) syndrome or uveoparotid fever is a variant of sarcoidosis, comprising of:
ocular involvement (anterior uveitis)
The exact prevalence is unknown, as only isolated case reports exist. Neurologic involvement may occur...
Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the second most common congenital facial anomaly after cleft lip/palate. The condition may vary from mild to severe. Goldenhar syndrome has been described as a variant of HFM, in which vertebral anomalies and epibulbar dermoids were present.
HFM is al...
Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome is characterised by:
multiple non-ossifying fibromas of the long bones and jaw
café au lait spots
hypogonadism or cryptorchidism
giant cell granuloma of the jaw
Kartagener syndrome is a subset of primary ciliary dyskinesia, an autosomal recessive condition characterised by an abnormal ciliary structure or function, leading to impaired mucociliary clearance.
The prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately 1 in 12,000-60,000 ...
Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) refers to the presence of congenital sensorineural hearing loss with an enlarged vestibular aqueduct. It is thought to be one of the most common congenital causes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).
SNHL starts in childhood and...
Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the jugular veins with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.
Patients typically present unwell...
Locked-in syndrome is a condition that can occur as a result of a stroke involving the brainstem; the stroke damages the ventral brainstem, corresponding to the pyramidal bundles.
The infarct is pontine; the midbrain is preserved. The oculomotor nerve III is intact so the...
Marine-Lenhart syndrome refers to a variant of Graves disease where there are coexistent autonomous thyroid nodules. It is better described as Graves disease with coexistent multinodular goitre or nodular Graves disease 1.
The syndrome is rare with reported prevalence somewhere b...
Mikulicz syndrome was considered a form of Sjögren syndrome (type 1) however more recently it is considered in IgG4 related disease spectrum. It is a non-specific inflammatory enlargement of at least two or more of the salivary and lacrimal glands with xerostomia.
It may also be referred to b...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) is also known as Wermer syndrome.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is one of the commonest presentations.
The abnormality is related to a tumour suppressor gene located in chromosome 11q13. MEN type I is an autosomal domin...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, also known as Sipple syndrome, accounts for most cases of MEN2 and is characterised by:
pheochromocytomas: in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal
medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patients, aggressive, and may secrete calciton...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIb, also known as MEN type 3 (MEN3) 3 or mucosal neuroma syndrome 2, accounts for only 5% cases of MEN2 and is characterised by:
pheochromocytoma(s): in 50% of patients, often bilateral, and can be extra-adrenal
medullary thyroid cancer: 100% of patient...
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease or previously known as Samter syndrome or aspirin or analgesic-induced asthma refers to the constellation of 1-2:
allergy to aspirin
nasal polyposis / rhinosinusitis
In adults, prevalence can ran...
Norrie disease is a rare X-linked inherited cause of congenital bilateral blindness. It can present with a retinal mass (pseudoglioma) and cataracts. It is associated with developmental delay and hearing loss.
Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterised by a euthyroid goitre associated with sensorineural hearing loss.
It is considered the most common form of syndromic hearing loss and accounts for upwards of 10% of hereditary deafness.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome, also known as the Paterson-Brown-Kelly syndrome, predisposes to hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma and consists of four features:
oesophageal webs or hypopharyngeal webs
The condition is more common in women.
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), also known as sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), is a rare benign idiopathic proliferative disease that involves phagocytic histiocytes.
The disease predominantly occurs in young adults with a mean age at presentation of 21 years....
Sclerosteosis is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia resulting in sclerosis and hyperostosis, particularly of the skull, mandible and tubular bones. It is closely related to Van Buchem disease 1.
Sclerosteosis is a very rare disease, with only around 100 cases reported. Ther...
The silent sinus syndrome represents maxillary sinus atelectasis that results in painless enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial asymmetry 1-3. Some authors restrict the term to patients with no history of sinusitis, trauma or surgery 2.
Silent sinus syndrome usually presents in the ...
Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune condition of exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva.
Sjögren syndrome is the second most common autoimmune disorder after rheumatoid arthritis. There is a recognised female predilection with F:M ratio of ≈ 9:1. Patients typically present a...
Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is a recently described inner ear abnormality, where a clinical disequilibrium phenomenon is associated with the absence of the bony covering of the superior semicircular canal (SSC).
Notably, this CT finding has also been described in ~10%...
Terson syndrome refers to vitreous haemorrhage associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, however some authors include retinal haemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.
Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-5...
van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is characterized by the association of congenital lower lip fistulae / pits with cleft lip and / or palate.
It is one of the most common clefting syndromes in humans 1. VWS individuals have a high prevalence of hypodontia.
It carries anautoso...
Vernet syndrome (also known as the jugular foramen syndrome) is a constellation of cranial nerve palsies due to compression from a jugular foramen lesion such as a glomus jugulare tumour or schwannoma. It consists of motor paralysis of:
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
vagus nerve (CN X)
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterised by granulomatous panuveitis with exudative retinal detachments that is often associated with neurologic and cutaneous manifestations.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada usually affected those of Asian, Middle Eastern, Asian I...
Von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is characterised by the development of numerous benign and malignant tumours in different organs (at least 40 types 1) due to mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 3.
The disease is rare with an estimated prevalence of 1:35,000-5...
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterised by some or all or the following features:
craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies)
short stature (50% of cases)
mild to moderate mental retardation
supravalvular aortic stenosis 2
pulmonary artery stenosis 3
Young syndrome shares similar clinical and radiological findings to primary ciliary dyskinesia and cystic fibrosis, however the underlying pathogenesis yet to be fully elucidated. Obstructive azoopsermia at the level of the epididymis is thought to be the cause of infertility. The commonly refer...