Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

174 results found
Article

Cachexia

Cachexia is a syndrome of metabolic dysfunction secondary to an underlying disease in which there is depleted skeletal muscle (sarcopenia) which may or may not be accompanied by an absolute loss of body fat.  Terminology Cancer cachexia is specifically used to refer to the cachexia associated ...
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Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome

Gunal-Seber-Basaran syndrome is an exceedingly rare presentation of multiple bone islands, i.e. osteopoikilosis. It is characterized by dacryocystitis due to lacrimal canal stenosis with osteopoikilosis 1-3. This syndrome has an autosomal dominant inheritance 2,3. History and etymology The com...
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Omodysplasia

Omodysplasia is an extremely rare short-limb skeletal dysplasia characterized by 1: frontal bossing depressed nasal bridge anteverted nares low-set ears long philtrum rhizomelia short Humerus with hypoplastic distal humeri elbow dislocation radio-ulnar diastasis flared metaphyses shor...
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Hip spine syndrome

Hip spine syndrome is one term used to describe the clinical association between hip osteoarthritis and degenerative lumbar spinal canal stenosis due to overlapping pain distribution.  Clinical presentation Patients with hip spine syndrome have hip and lumbar spine degeneration and present wit...
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Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome

Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome, also known as supratrochlear / posterior suprapatellar fat pad impingement syndrome, is one of the fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee, specifically involving the prefemoral fat pad. Clinical presentation Patients present with anterior knee pain e...
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Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome

Neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome is the most common cause of thoracic outlet syndrome accounting for approximately 90% of cases. It is caused by compression of the brachial plexus as it passes between the scalenus muscles, over the first rib and posteroinferior to the clavicle before entering...
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Snapping scapula syndrome

Snapping scapula syndrome is an uncommon condition where on scapular movement there is pain associated with an audible or palpable grinding, clicking or snapping.  Pathology Causes include 1,2: scapulothoracic bursitis scapular stabilizer muscular atrophy/fibrosis, e.g. long thoracic nerve i...
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Fuhrmann syndrome

Fuhrmann syndrome is a rare non-lethal genetic limb malformation syndrome characterized by 1,2: hypoplasia of pelvis bowing of femur bone polydactyly hypoplastic fibula symmetrical fingernail deficiency 4 tooth anomalies 5 malformed thumbs 8 It is a syndrome in which there is a partial l...
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Arterial tortuosity syndrome

Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is a very rare autosomal recessive connective tissue disease. It is similar to Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), the major differentiator being the general tortuous nature of the larger arteries. Clinical presentation It presents similarly to other collagen disor...
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Catel-Manzke syndrome

Catel-Manzke syndrome is a digitopalatal syndrome initially described in 1961. Inheritance pattern is unknown. Radiographic findings include micronagthia and accessory ossicles at the bases of the metacarpals.
Article

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis

Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis, also known as hyaline fibromatosis syndrome or infantile systemic hyalinosis is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome outlined by painful, abnormal, often deforming deposits of hyalinized fibrous material in the extracellular matrix of the skin, subcutaneous soft tis...
Article

Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome

The Van Wyk Grumbach syndrome is characterized by chronic hypothyroidism with high levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), delayed bone age, precocious puberty but lacking pubic and axillary hair growth 1.  Epidemiology The acquired form of hypothyroidism is seen in children caused by chr...
Article

Spinoglenoid notch syndrome

Spinoglenoid notch syndrome is caused by compression of suprascapular nerve due to a ganglion cyst at the spinoglenoid notch resulting in shoulder pain and posterior shoulder tenderness. Clinical presentation On clinical examination, there is posterior shoulder tenderness, discomfort in extern...
Article

Transient osteoporosis

Transient osteoporosis is a self-limited condition characterized by reparative bone remodeling, which can affect all weight-bearing joints, being most common in the femoral head. For detailed description of that condition see transient ostoporosis of the hip.  Clinical presentation Typical sym...
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Impingement syndrome

Impingement syndrome is a painful encroachment of joint motion caused by protruding bony or soft tissue structures. Epidemiology Impingement syndromes are common and can occur at any age. Risk factors developmental osseous anomalies overuse activity trauma Associations osteoarthritis te...
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Little league shoulder

Little league shoulder is thought to occur due to overuse damage of the proximal humeral epiphysis/metaphysis, seen typically in young baseball players, especially pitchers. Epidemiology Although it is most commonly seen in baseball players particularly in pitchers, it also presents in adolesc...
Article

Anterior suprapatellar fat pad impingement syndrome

Anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad impingement syndrome is a rare cause of anterior knee pain although anterior suprapatellar fat pad edema may often, and possibly more commonly, be incidental 1,2.  Radiographics features MRI The anterior suprapatellar fat pad is enlarged with mass e...
Article

Vaughan-Jackson syndrome

Vaughan-Jackson syndrome describes a rare syndrome of sequential atraumatic extensor tendon ruptures in the hand, usually in the setting of rheumatoid arthritis of the distal radioulnar joint. Clinical presentation The presentation is with reduced extension of the fingers 1-5. Typically, the f...
Article

Hunter syndrome

Hunter syndrome, also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) is a rare genetic mucopolysaccharidosis disorder characterized by specific clinical features 1. Epidemiology Hunter syndrome is an X-linked recessive disease and therefore much more common in males. It is a rare disorder wit...
Article

Bone marrow edema syndrome

Bone marrow edema syndrome refers to a group of transient, self-limiting clinical entities of unknown cause, which are associated with the presence of bone marrow edema pattern. These conditions include: transient osteoporosis of the hip bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot and ankle regio...
Article

RAPADILINO syndrome

RAPADILINO syndrome is a rare autosomal-recessive syndrome that results from mutations in the RECQL4 gene 1. Epidemiology RAPADILINO syndrome is a rare condition, prevalence is unknown. It is, however, more common and was first described in Finnish populations 2. Pathology The acronym RAPADI...
Article

Sanjad Sakati syndrome

Sanjad Sakati syndrome, also known as hypoparathyroidism-intellectual disability-dysmorphism syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Epidemiology The syndrome is almost exclusively found in people of Arab origin. There is an equal distribution in both sexes. Clinical presentation h...
Article

Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot and ankle

Bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot and ankle, also known as transient bone marrow edema syndrome of the foot and ankle, refers to the presence of self-limited, patchy bone marrow T2 hyperintensities in the bones of the ankle and/or foot of unknown etiology. It is related to transient osteopo...
Article

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome

Branchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a very rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is characterized clinically by abnormalities affecting the eyes, craniofacial structures, and branchial sinuses. Epidemiology More than 80 cases have been reported in the global literature since its f...
Article

Adductor canal syndrome

Adductor canal syndrome (also known as adductor canal compression syndrome) is a rare, non-atherosclerotic cause of arterial occlusion and limb ischemia 1. There is compression of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in the adductor canal. Epidemiology External compression of the superficial f...
Article

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (also known as type III acrocephalosyndactyly) is characterized by limb and skull abnormalities. Epidemiology It is the most common craniosynostosis syndrome and affects 1:25 - 50,000 individuals. Males and females are equally affected. Clinical presentation The spe...
Article

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome

Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (also known as conorenal syndrome (CRS)) is a rare condition and is one of the ciliopathies. It is due to mutations in the IFT140 gene, whose protein product is one of the six parts of the intraflagellar transport complex A. The syndrome's key characteristics are: phal...
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Cuboid syndrome

Cuboid syndrome is a cause of lateral midoot pain, believed to result from abnormal articulation of the cuboid with the calcaneus (calcaneocuboid joint). Clinical presentation Cuboid syndrome presents with lateral foot pain and swelling, often diffuse and similar to an ankle (ligament) sprain ...
Article

Valgus extension overload syndrome

Valgus extension overload syndrome, also known as pitcher's elbow, refers to a constellation of symptoms and pathologies commonly seen in overhead throwing athletes secondary to high repetitive tensile, shear and compressive forces generated by the overhead throwing motion. The syndrome may cor...
Article

Slipping rib syndrome

Slipping rib syndrome, also known as Cyriax syndrome, occurs when hypermobility of the rib cartilage of the lower ribs slips and moves, leading to pain in the lower chest or upper abdomen 1. Epidemiology This condition may occur at any age, but is reportedly more common in middle-aged adults, ...
Article

Flat back syndrome

Flat back syndrome (FBS) refers to the decrease or absence of the normal lumbar lordosis resulting primarily in chronic lumbar pain. Terminology  Flat back syndrome is a different condition from straight back syndrome and the two should not be confused or conflated. Clinical presentation Mos...
Article

Hand-foot syndrome (chemotherapy)

Hand-foot syndrome, also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia or Burgdorf reaction, is a benign, aseptic, self-limiting complication of many chemotherapeutic agents characterized by a widespread erythema, edema and ulceration of the hands and feet.  Causative drugs Many chemotherapeutic...
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Acute compartment syndrome

Acute compartment syndrome is a limb and life-threatening surgical emergency. It is a painful condition caused by increased intracompartmental pressure, compromising perfusion and resulting in muscle and nerve damage within that compartment. Epidemiology Acute compartment syndrome is more comm...
Article

Antley-Bixler syndrome

Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), also known as trapezoidocephaly-synostosis syndrome, is a rare autosomal dominant or recessive condition characterized by craniosynostosis and extra-cranial synostoses. Mid-facial hypoplasia is also common. Epidemiology It is a very rare condition with only 50 cas...
Article

Femoral facial syndrome

Femoral facial syndrome, also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome, is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by varying degrees of femoral hypoplasia and facial dysmorphism 1. Clinical presentation Femoral facial syndrome can cause varying degrees of femoral malformation rang...
Article

Currarino-Silverman syndrome

Currarino-Silverman syndrome, also known as pectus carinatum type 2 deformity, is a rare disorder. Clinical presentation Patients present with a high carinate chest deformity due to a premature fusion of the manubriosternal joint and sternal ossification centers. Congenital heart diseases have...
Article

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a clinically separate entity from osteopathia striata (Voorhoeve disease). Bony changes on their own are typically incidental and autosomal dominant, whereas OS-CS is a multisystem, X-linked dominant disorder. Epidemiology OS-CS is extremel...
Article

Levator ani syndrome

Levator ani syndrome (LAS) is a musculoskeletal pain syndrome involving the pelvic floor, thought to be caused by spasm or scarring of the levator ani muscles. Clinical presentation Levator ani syndrome is characterized by recurrent pain, pressure or discomfort in the region of the rectum, sac...
Article

Rhupus syndrome

Rhupus syndrome is a term traditionally used to describe patients uncommonly having the coexistence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Article

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps syndrome

Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is an autosomal dominant monogenic COL4A1-related disorder. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is unknown. Clinical presentation The cardinal features of HANAC syndrome are helpfully described in the name of...
Article

Spondylocostal dysostosis

Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO) is a rare condition characterized by short-trunk dwarfism secondary to developmental anomalies of the vertebrae and ribs. Previously the condition Jarcho-Levin syndrome (also known as spondylothoracic dysostosis) was grouped together with spondylocostal dysostosi...
Article

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia is a form of skeletal dysplasia mainly involving the spine and proximal epiphyses.  Clinical presentation short neck short trunk with protruding abdomen  normal IQ spine atlanto-axial instability craniovertebral junction stenosis platyspondyly scoliosis exa...
Article

Raynaud phenomenon

Raynaud phenomenon (also known as Raynaud syndrome) describes a localized vasculopathy whereby there is an exaggerated vascular response to cold temperature or emotional stresses. Terminology Raynaud phenomenon is classified as being either 'primary' or idiopathic, or 'secondary' to another un...
Article

Progeria

Progeria is a term used for any syndrome in which a person is prematurely aged, however, it most commonly refers to Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). Radiographic features Although the primary clinical manifestations of progeria include short stature and skin changes, the disease is...
Article

Fatco syndrome

Fatco syndrome is a syndrome consisting of fibular aplasia tibial campomelia and oligosyndactyly. It is a syndrome of unknown genetic basis and inheritance with variable expressivity and penetrance. Differential diagnosis Fuhrmann syndrome and Al-Awadi syndrome are said to be similar to FA...
Article

Sclerosteosis

Sclerosteosis is a rare autosomal recessive bone dysplasia resulting in sclerosis and hyperostosis, particularly of the skull, mandible and tubular bones. It is closely related to Van Buchem disease 1. Epidemiology Sclerosteosis is a very rare disease, with only around 100 cases reported. Ther...
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Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis

Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an idiopathic inflammatory bone disorder seen primarily in children and adolescents. It is often a diagnosis of exclusion once underlying infection and neoplasia have been ruled out. However, there are some cases in which lesion location and m...
Article

Focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome

Focal dermal hypoplasia syndrome, is also known as Goltz syndrome, and is not to be confused with the similar-sounding Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Epidemiology A rare disorder that follows an X-linked dominant inheritance pattern. More commonly seen in males than females. Worldwide only 200-300 cas...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia, also known as bent spine syndrome or cyphose hystérique, is a rare syndrome characterized by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when lying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Epidemiology In a small case se...
Article

PPP syndrome

PPP syndrome is the extremely rare association of pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis. Epidemiology Most commonly affects middle-aged male patients with a history of heavy alcohol use 1,2.  Clinical presentation In the majority of cases, abdominal symptoms are mild or absent, makin...
Article

Hemihyperplasia

Hemihyperplasia, also known as hemihypertrophy, is asymmetry in size between the right and left of the body, more than can be attributed to normal variation. Terminology Hemihyperplasia is more scientifically correct than hemihypertrophy as the cells are hyperplastic rather than hypertrophied ...
Article

Crowned dens syndrome

Crowned dens syndrome is an inflammatory condition resulting from crystal deposition in the cruciform and alar ligaments surrounding the dens, appearing as a radiopaque 'crown' surrounding the top of the dens. It typically presents with pain and increased inflammatory markers.  Terminology The...
Article

Stevens Johnson syndrome

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute inflammatory skin condition.  Terminology SJS is on a spectrum of disease with toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TENS) at the more severe end. Terminology depends on how much of the body surface area is involved 1,2: SJS: <10% SJS-TENS overlap: 1...
Article

Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
Article

Trochanteric syndrome

Trochanteric syndrome (greater trochanteric pain syndrome) refers to pain that originates from the lateral hip region. Terminology Bursitis is not necessarily present and the often-used term trochanteric bursitis is therefore not always appropriate 1. Epidemiology Trochanteric syndrome most ...
Article

Ischiofemoral impingement

Ischiofemoral impingement refers to the impingement of soft tissues between the ischial tuberosity and lesser trochanter of the femur.  Clinical presentation Ischiofemoral impingement is a rare cause of buttock pain, groin pain, or a snapping hip 6,7. Epidemiology Females are more affected t...
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Medial patellar plica syndrome

Medial patellar plica syndrome are symptoms that can be associated with the presence of synovial plicae of the knee (most commonly the medial plica). It can be a common source of anterior knee pain. Epidemiology While it can affect those of any age, it typically involves the young patients (1s...
Article

Seatbelt syndrome

The seatbelt syndrome is the constellation of traumatic thoracic, abdominal and/or vertebral column injuries associated with three-point seatbelts 1,2: bowel perforation mesenteric tear sternal fracture lumbar spine fracture female breast trauma
Article

Kyphomelic dysplasias

Kyphomelic dysplasias (also known as "pseudocampomelia") is thought to be a heterogeneous class of "bent bone" skeletal dysplasias. Entities included in a differential for the class are: congenital bowing of the long bones cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH; metaphyseal dysplasia, McKusick type) ...
Article

≤11 ribs (differential)

≤11 ribs is associated with a number of congenital abnormalities and skeletal dysplasias, including: Down syndrome (trisomy 21) campomelic dysplasia kyphomelic dysplasias asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (Jeune syndrome) short rib polydactyly syndromes trisomy 18 chromosome 1q21.1 deletion...
Article

Laurin-Sandrow syndrome

Laurin-Sandrow syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by tetrameric polysyndactlyly. Radiographic features polysyndactyly of the hands (both post-axial and pre-axial) "cup-shaped" hands mirror polysyndactyly of the feet ulnar dimelia absence of the radius and tibia possible hypertelori...
Article

Preaxial polydactyly

Preaxial polydactyly refers to polydactyly where the additional digit is towards the first digit of the hand (radial side) or foot (medially). Epidemiology Preaxial polydactyly is less common than postaxial polydactyly, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 7000. Associations Preaxial polydact...
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Zimmerman-Laband syndrome

Zimmerman-Laband syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome, characterized primarily by gingival hypertrophy and skeletal abnormalities.  Pathology The molecular basis of the syndrome is currently unknown. An autosomal dominant mutation with a high mutation rate and rare instances of germinal mosa...
Article

Elbow synovial fold syndrome

Elbow synovial fold syndrome refers to a condition where patients experience a cluster of symptoms due to the presence of synovial folds (also known as synovial fringe or plicae). Epidemiology It tends to be more common in athletic young adults. It is associated with certain sporting activitie...
Article

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome

Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by severe osteoporosis and blindness. This disease is frequently mistaken for osteogenesis imperfecta.  Epidemiology This disease is encountered in approximately 1 in 2 million births.  Pathology T...
Article

Yunis-Varón syndrome

Yunis Varón syndrome is a rare skeletal dysplasia. It is thought to be autosomal recessive. Radiographic features severe neurologic impairment include small cerebellar vermis and dandy walker malformation cleidocranial dysplasia absent clavicles macrocrania diastasis of sutures micrognath...
Article

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a rare neuromuscular junction disorder of paraneoplastic or primary autoimmune etiology. Epidemiology LEMS is the second most common neuromuscular junction disease after myasthenia gravis.  Two-thirds of LEMS present as a paraneoplastic syndrome sec...
Article

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Paraneoplastic syndromes occur secondary to the indirect effects of a malignancy and occur remotely to the primary malignancy. Symptoms are mediated by cytokines, hormones or immune cross-reactivity. These syndromes can cause a diverse range of symptoms and can affect multiple systems. Epidemio...
Article

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a very rare connective tissue disorder with only 50 cases reported in the literature 7. Clinical presentation It is mostly diagnosed in adulthood or adolescence with the presence of a positive family history. There has been no link between severity of disease and age o...
Article

Accessory navicular syndrome

Accessory navicular syndrome occurs when a type II accessory navicular becomes painful due to movement across the pseudo-joint between the ossicle and the navicular bone. Radiographic features Ultrasound It can be inferred on musculoskeletal ultrasound if a patient's pain is located at a type...
Article

Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Clinical presentation Patient...
Article

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome

Bannayan–Riley–Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS or BRR syndrome) is a very rare autosomal dominant hamartomatous disorder caused by a mutation in the PTEN gene. It is considered in the family of hamartomatous polyposis syndrome. There are no formal diagnostic criteria for this disease, but characterist...
Article

Acrodysostosis

Acrodysostosis is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by growth retardation, nasal hypoplasia, brachydactyly, midfacial deficiency, intellectual disability and deafness. Pathology Most cases are sporadic. Few cases with autosomal dominant transmission have been reported. It is believed to ...
Article

Ulnar dimelia

Ulnar dimelia or mirror hand syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the upper limb characterized by absence of the radial ray (including thumb), duplication of the ulna and duplication of the ulnar halves of the carpals, metacarpals and phalanges 1. Pathology Embryology The embryology of mi...
Article

Reactive arthritis

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a sterile inflammatory monoarticular or oligoarticular arthritis that follows an infection at a different site, commonly enteric or urogenital. It is classified as a type of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. Terminology Reactive arthritis was formerly known as Reite...
Article

Wartenberg syndrome

Wartenberg syndrome, also known as cheiralgia paresthetica, is due to compression of the superficial branch of the radial nerve in the distal forearm and a rare nerve compression neuropathy. Clinical presentation Patients present with pain and paresthesia along the dorsum of the distal forearm...
Article

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (also known as metaphyseal dysplasia or dysostosis) is a type of skeletal dysplasia. Pathology Classification Schmid type - mild type, due to mutation in type X collagen (COL10A1 gene), metaphyses are cupped resembling rickets Pena and Vaandrager type - intermedi...
Article

Bertolotti syndrome

Bertolotti syndrome refers to the association between lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and low back pain. Although it may be a consideration in younger patients, the entity is considered controversial and has been both supported and disputed since the Italian radiologist Mario Bertolotti (187...
Article

Tietze syndrome

Tietze syndrome is a benign condition characterized by a self-limiting inflammation of the costal cartilages often with hypertrophy. Although often described as such, it is not a costochondritis 9. Epidemiology The exact incidence of occurrence is not known. It is seen most commonly in the 2nd...
Article

Fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee

In fat pad impingement syndromes, the etiologies are different for each knee fat pad. In anterior suprapatellar fat pad impingement syndrome, the cause is usually due to either a developmental cause related to the anatomy of the extensor mechanism or may be related to abnormal mechanics. In thi...
Article

Otopalatodigital syndrome type I

Otopalatodigital syndrome type I is a rare genetic disorder characterized by: skeletal dysplasia hearing loss cleft palate and a characteristic face (with hypertelorism, broad nasal root, prominent supraorbital ridges, small flat nose and downslanted palpebral fissures).  It is a member of ...
Article

Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
Article

Bannayan-Zonana syndrome

Bannayan-Zonana syndrome, also known as Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, is a rare hamartomatous disorder.  Epidemiology Male predominance is reported 1. Clinical presentation Bannayan-Zonana syndrome is characterized by: macrocephaly  multiple lipomas hemangiomas 1 Other findings that...
Article

Familial multiple lipomatosis

Familial multiple lipomatosis (FML) is a hereditary syndrome of multiple encapsulated lipomas which are found on the trunk and extremities, with relative sparing of the head and shoulders.  Terminology It is clinically distinct from the similarly named multiple symmetric lipomatosis with which...
Article

Pronator teres syndrome

Pronator teres syndrome (also called pronator syndrome) is one of three common median nerve entrapment syndromes; the other two being anterior interosseous nerve syndrome and the far more common carpal tunnel syndrome. Signs and symptoms result from compression of the median nerve in the upper f...
Article

Ischiopubic synchondrosis asymmetry

Ischiopubic synchondrosis asymmetry (also known as van Neck-Odelberg disease) is characteristic enlargement of one of the ischiopubic synchondroses. It is largely considered an anatomic variant of skeletal developmental, given that it is a common and usually asymptomatic finding. However, some ...
Article

Cubital tunnel syndrome

Cubital tunnel syndrome is a type of ulnar nerve compression neuropathy (tunnel syndrome) due to pathological compression of the ulnar nerve along its course within the cubital tunnel. Epidemiology The compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow is the second most common peripheral neuropathy ...
Article

Proteus syndrome

Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterized by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. Clinical presentation Affected patients usually appear nor...
Article

Anterior ankle impingement syndrome

Anterior ankle impingement (AAI) syndrome is the result of chronic repetitive trauma with impingement of the anterior tibia against the talus. Epidemiology Common in soccer players and ballet dancers 1. Clinical presentation Clinical features of anterior ankle impingement syndrome include pa...
Article

Goodman syndrome

Goodman syndrome is a type of acrocephalopolysyndactyly (often considered type IV). It is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by marked malformations of the head and face, abnormalities of the hands and feet, and congenital heart disease. The syndrome is inherited as an autosomal re...
Article

Sinus tarsi syndrome

Sinus tarsi syndrome (STS) is the clinical syndrome of pain and tenderness of the lateral side of the hindfoot, between the ankle and the heel. Imaging often demonstrates the ligaments and soft tissues in the sinus tarsi are injured. Epidemiology Sinus tarsi syndrome has been described in danc...
Article

Camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis syndrome

Camptodactyly arthropathy coxa vara pericarditis (CACP) syndrome is a rare condition principally characterized by congenital or early-onset camptodactyly and childhood-onset non-inflammatory arthropathy coxa vara deformity or other dysplasia associated with progressive hip disease  pericardit...
Article

Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. If the clinical presentation is atypical, pulled elbow should be distinguished from ...

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