Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and edited by countless contributing members over a period of time. A global group of dedicated editors oversee accuracy, consulting with expert advisers, and constantly reviewing additions.

22 results found
Article

Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome

Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome is uncommon, but usually presents with profound neurological signs and symptoms, and the prognosis is poor.  Epidemiology Acute spinal cord ischemia syndrome represents only 5-8% of acute myelopathies 4,5 and <1% of all strokes 7. The demographic of affected...
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Autonomic dysreflexia

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD) is a life-threatening condition prevalent amongst patients with high spinal cord injury (SCI) and may occur any time after injury. It is a syndrome characterized by an exaggerated reflex increase in blood pressure, usually accompanied by bradycardia in response to a st...
Article

Bertolotti syndrome

Bertolotti syndrome refers to the association between lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and low back pain. Although it may be a consideration in younger patients, the entity is considered controversial and has been both supported and disputed since Mario Bertolotti first described it in 1917. ...
Article

Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome, also known as hemicord syndrome, is the result of damage to, or impairment of, the left or right side of the spinal cord. It is characterized by a characteristic pattern of motor and sensory deficits that are determined by the decussation pattern of various white matter t...
Article

Camptocormia

Camptocormia (bent spine syndrome or cyphose hystérique) is a rare syndrome characterized by involuntary flexion of the thoracolumbar spine with weight-bearing which reduces when laying down, and is due to isolated atrophy of the paraspinal muscles. Epidemiology In a small case series (n=16), ...
Article

Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus, and refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an acutely extruded lumbar d...
Article

Caudal regression syndrome

Caudal regression syndrome represents a spectrum of structural defects of the caudal region. Malformations vary from isolated partial agenesis of the coccyx to lumbosacral agenesis. Epidemiology Caudal regression syndrome is rare, with an estimated incidence of 1:7500-100,000 7,10. The vast m...
Article

Central cord syndrome

Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete spinal cord syndrome, usually the result of trauma, accounting for ~10% of all spinal cord injuries. As the name implies, this syndrome is the result of a damage to the central portion spinal cord and in the setting of trauma most commo...
Article

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is the most commonly inherited neuropathy of lower motor (to a lesser degree sensory) neurons. Epidemiology The prevalence of CMT in one Norwegian study was 82.3 cases per 100,000 people 4.  Clini...
Article

Clasp-knife deformity

Clasp-knife deformity is relatively common congenital anomaly found at the lumbosacral junction. Terminology When a clasp-knife deformity is accompanied by pain on extension secondary to protrusion of the enlarged spinous process (knife blade) into the sacral spinal canal, it is called clasp-k...
Article

Cobb syndrome

Cobb syndrome, also called cutaneous vertebral medullary angiomatosis, or spinal arteriovenous metameric syndrome, consists of the presence of a vascular nevus with a spinal vascular malformation of the same body somite (metamere).  The importance of this syndrome is the recognition that cutane...
Article

Conus medullaris syndrome

Conus medullaris syndrome is caused by an injury or insult to the conus medullaris and lumbar nerve roots. It is a clinical subset of spinal cord injury syndromes. Injuries at the level of T12 to L2 vertebrae are most likely to result in conus medullaris syndrome. Clinical presentation Patient...
Article

Failed back syndrome

Failed back syndrome refers to persistent leg and/or lumbar back pain after a surgical procedure. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is complex, as often the operation was technically successful.  Terminology Other names for failed back syndrome include failed back surgery syndrome, post-lam...
Article

Flat back syndrome

Flat back syndrome (FBS) refers to the decrease or absence of the normal lumbar lordosis resulting primarily in chronic lumbar pain. Terminology  Flat back syndrome is a different condition from straight back syndrome and the two should not be confused or conflated. Clinical presentation Mos...
Article

Grisel syndrome

Grisel syndrome is a rare cause of torticollis that involves subluxation of atlanto-axial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity following an infectious process in the head and neck, usually a retropharyngeal abscess. Epidemiology It usually occurs in infants or young children. Clinical p...
Article

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is defined as a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar ...
Article

Jarcho-Levin syndrome

The Jarcho-Levin syndrome (JLS) or spondylothoracic dysostosis is a rare autosomal recessive heterogeneous disorder that can occur with variable severity. Previously the condition spondylocostal dysostosis was also considered as part of the JLS spectrum but is now considered a distinct pathologi...
Article

Klippel-Feil syndrome

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex heterogeneous entity that results in cervical vertebral fusion. Two or more non-segmented cervical vertebrae are usually sufficient for diagnosis. Epidemiology There is a recognized female predilection 1. Klippel-Feil syndrome has an incidence of 1:40,000-42,...
Article

Lateral meningocele syndrome

Lateral meningocele syndrome is an extremely rare hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by multiple lateral lumbar meningoceles, distinctive facial features, joint hypermobility, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, congenital cardiovascular malformations, urogenital anomalies and ne...
Article

Posterior spinal artery syndrome

Posterior spinal artery syndrome is a rare syndrome associated occlusion of the posterior spinal artery and results in a unilateral dorsal cord syndrome (since the posterior arteries are paired) 3.  The syndrome is clinically characterized by isolated loss of proprioception and vibratory sensat...
Article

Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to decreased thoracic kyphosis ("flattening") and decreased anteroposterior thoracic diameter, such that there is compression of cardiovascular or bronchial structures.  It should not be confused with flat back syndrome, which refers to decreased lumbar lordosis, o...
Article

Ventral cord syndrome

Ventral cord syndrome (also known as anterior cord syndrome) is one of the incomplete cord syndromes and affects the anterior parts of the cord resulting in a pattern of neurological dysfunction dominated by motor paralysis and loss of pain, temperature and autonomic function. Anterior spinal ar...

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