Acute aortic syndrome (AAS) describes the presentation of patients with one of a number of life threatening aortic pathologies that give rise to aortic symptoms.
The spectrum of these aortic emergencies include:
aortic intramural hematoma
penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are:
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
Adductor canal syndrome (also known as adductor canal compression syndrome) is a rare, non-atherosclerotic cause of arterial occlusion and limb ischemia 1. There is compression of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) in the adductor canal.
External compression of the superficial f...
Anterior choroidal artery (AchA) syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the triad of hemiplegia, hemianaesthesia and contralateral hemianopia as a result of cerebral infarction in the anterior choroidal artery territory.
The syndrome may also be associated with neuropsychological disorders,...
Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder. It is usually defined as the clinical complex of vascular occlusion and ischemic events occurring in patients who have circulating antiphospholipid antibodies.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venou...
Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) or Bean syndrome, is a rare sporadic syndrome characterized by multifocal venous anomalies. Patients often have multiple soft blue skin lesions associated with multiple bowel venous malformations, which could lead to lower gastrointestinal bleeding.
Budd-Chiari syndrome, also known as hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO), refers to the clinical picture that occurs when there is partial or complete obstruction of the hepatic veins. It is characterized on imaging by ascites, caudate hypertrophy, peripheral atrophy, and prominent collater...
Carney complex (not to be confused with the Carney triad) is a rare multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome characterized by 1-4:
seen in two-thirds of patients with Carney complex
skin pigmentation (blue nevi): especially of the face, trunk, lips, and sclera
Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome, is a rare syndrome characterized by neck pain in the region of the carotid bifurcation.
It was classified by the International Headache Society (IHS) in 1988 as an idiopathic neck pain syndrome associated with tenderness over the carotid bifurcation with...
Chronic hereditary lymphedema (also known as Milroy disease) is a condition characterized by lower limb lymphedema. Patients typically present with pedal edema at or before birth or soon after. Occasionally, it develops later in life.
Mutations in the FLT4 gene are thought ...
Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as celiac axis syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome and Dunbar syndrome. It is characterized by upper abdominal angina secondary to compression of the celiac trunk by the diaphragmatic crurae.
The median arcuate ligament is the f...
Cogan syndrome is a rare vasculitis of young adults that is primarily characterized by 1,4,6:
inflammatory eye disease (classically interstitial keratitis) 6
audiovestibular dysfunction (similar to Meniere disease) 6
Cogan syndrome is rare and can occur in people of any age and ...
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome comprises a heterogeneous group of collagen disorders (hereditary connective tissue disease).
There is a recognized male predominance.
Clinically manifests by skin hyperelasticity and fragility, joint hypermobility and blood vessel fr...
Familial multiple cavernous malformation syndrome is uncommon, accounting for only a minority of cavernous malformations.
It has been more frequently reported in patients of Hispanic descent 1.
The presentation is most commonly with seizures (38-55%) 1 and ...
F. P. Weber syndrome (FPWS) is a traditional eponymous denomination of a certain type of angiodysplasia, that would nowadays rather be called a mixed hemolymphatic congenital vascular malformation (CVM) with arteriovenous (AV) shunting, based on the Hamburg classification of CVMs.
In his origin...
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome, is a rare inherited disorder characterized by abnormal blood vessel formation in the skin, mucous membranes, and organs including the lungs, liver, and central nervous system.
Heyde syndrome is an association between aortic valve stenosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.
The etiology of the gastrointestinal bleeding in this setting is uncertain, but it is thought to be related to intestinal angiodysplasia. The strength of this association independent of age-related d...
Hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare complication.
Hyperperfusion occurs in ~7.5% (range 1-14%) of patients but only a minority (~1.5%) of patients are symptomatic 1,2, with incidence being reported slightly more af...
Hypothenar hammer syndrome occurs from trauma to the distal ulnar artery or proximal portion of superficial palmar arch as a result of repetitive trauma to the hypothenar eminence. Originally described in patients using hammers and screwdrivers, it is also seen in various athletes such as basket...
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome, also known as hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare life-threatening disease found in infants in which a rapidly growing vascular tumor is responsible for thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and consumptive coagulopathy.
Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS) is a syndrome combination of capillary malformations, soft-tissue or bone hypertrophy, and varicose veins or venous malformations. It is considered an angio-osteo-hypertrophic syndrome.
KTS classically comprises a triad of:
port wine nevi
bony or soft t...
Lemierre syndrome refers to thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein(s) with distant metastatic sepsis in the setting of initial oropharyngeal infection such as pharyngitis/tonsillitis with or without peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.
Since the advent of antibiotics, ...
Marfan syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disease caused by a defect in the protein fibrillin 1, encoded for by the FBN1 gene. Cardiovascular involvement with aortic root dilatation and dissection is the most feared complication of the disease.
The estimated prevalence is...
May-Thurner syndrome refers to a chronic compression of the left common iliac vein (CIV) against the lumbar vertebrae by the overlying right common iliac artery (CIA), with or without deep venous thrombosis 2.
Although both left and right CIVs lie deep to the right common iliac artery, the left...
The metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, is a set of five conditions, which together increase a patient's risk of developing cardiovascular disease 1.
There are five central components of the metabolic syndrome:
impaired glucose tolerance
Midaortic syndrome is an uncommon entity affecting children and young adults. It is characterized by progressive narrowing of the abdominal aorta and its major branches.
The onset of symptoms is usually during childhood or young adulthood 2:
hypertension (most common)
Nutcracker syndrome is a vascular compression disorder that refers to the compression of the left renal vein most commonly between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta, although other variations can exist 1. This can lead to renal venous hypertension, resulting in rupture of thin-walle...
Ovarian vein syndrome is a relatively rare condition where a dilated ovarian vein causes notching, dilatation, or obstruction of the ureter. This is usually secondary to varicoses of the ovarian vein or ovarian vein thrombosis and occurs at the point where the ovarian vein crosses the ureter.
Paget-Schrötter syndrome, alternatively spelled Paget-Schroetter syndrome and also known as effort thrombosis, refers to primary thrombosis of the axillary and/or subclavian vein. It can be thought of as a venous equivalent of thoracic outlet syndrome.
It is associated with forced...
PHACE syndrome, also known as cutaneous hemangioma–vascular complex syndrome or Pascual-Castroviejo type II syndrome, is a phakomatosis that comprises of:
P: posterior fossa malformations (e.g. Dandy-Walker malformation)
A: arterial anomalies
C: coarctation of the aorta and ca...
Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is an uncommon complication of deep venous thrombosis, which results from extensive thrombotic occlusion of the major and collateral veins of an extremity (usually the legs).
Left leg is more commonly affected than the right 4.
Pinch-off syndrome is a spontaneous catheter fracture, which is seen as a complication of subclavian venous catheterization.
It is a known complication of central venous catheterization with a much-reduced incidence in current practice and is generally considered to be rare.
Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) refers to symptomatic compression or occlusion of the popliteal artery due to a developmentally abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery in relation to its surrounding structures such as with the medial head of gastrocnemius (MHG) or less commonly ...
Post-embolization syndrome (PES) is one of the most common side effects of transarterial embolization and chemoembolization. It comprises of a constellation of fever, nausea/vomiting, and pain. It is often a self-limiting phenomenon and usually occurs within the first 72 hours after embolization...
Posterior choroidal artery occlusion uncommonly presents as an isolated stroke syndrome. It usually coexists with posterior cerebral artery and often superior cerebellar artery involvement.
When seen in isolation damage is characteristically limited to the:
lateral geniculate body
Post thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a syndrome of chronic venous insufficiency following deep vein thrombosis (DVT) due to valvular incompetence, which results in chronic reflux and chronic venous hypertension.
PTS is a common complication following extensive DVT of the limbs. Up to...
Proteus syndrome is a rare congenital, multisystemic, hamartomatous condition characterized by asymmetrical overgrowth of almost any part of the body and a broad spectrum of manifestations. It can affect tissue from any germinal layer. It is suspected to be a genetic condition, but a particular ...
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), also known as Grönblad–Strandberg syndrome, is a systemic condition characterized by the degeneration of elastic fibers. It has multiorgan manifestations.
Its prevalence is estimated to be around 1 in 25,000 9.
Patients may ...
Rhupus syndrome is a term traditionally used to describe patients uncommonly having the coexistence of
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Rotational vertebral artery occlusion syndrome, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a rare form of vertebrobasilar insufficiency secondary to dynamic compression of the usually-dominant vertebral artery.
It has many predisposing etiologies, but is most often due to large osteoph...
Segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) is an increasingly recognized vascular disease of the middle-aged and elderly and a leading cause of spontanoeus intra-abdominal hemorrhage. It is characterized by fusiform aneurysms, stenoses, dissections and occlusions within splanchnic arterial branches. Im...
Shone syndrome, also known as Shone complex, is a rare syndrome characterized by left-sided, obstructive congenital heart defects.
Shone syndrome is thought to be very rare, accounting for less than 1% of all congenital heart disease 1.
Patients, usually ne...
Stewart-Treves syndrome refers to an angiosarcoma seen in the setting of lymphedema 1.
It was classically attributed to lymphedemas induced by radical mastectomy to treat breast cancer. Nowadays, we know that it can arise in chronically lymphedematous regions of any cause 2.
The incidence is ...
Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) and subclavian steal phenomenon both result from occlusion or severe stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery resulting in retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery.
Subclavian steal phenomenon refers to steno-occlusive disease of the pro...
Sulcal artery syndrome is a rare cause of spinal cord infarction involving the territory of one of the sulcal arteries, which are penetrating branches of the anterior spinal artery, each vessel supplying either left or right side of the cord, but not both. The result is an incomplete Brown-Séqua...
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome, also known as Wilkie syndrome, is a rare acquired vascular compression disorder in which acute angulation of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) results in compression of the third part of the duodenum, leading to obstruction.
It should not be confuse...
Superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction can occur from extrinsic compression, intrinsic stenosis, or thrombosis. Malignancies are the main cause and are considered an oncologic emergency. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) refers to the clinical syndrome with symptoms that results from this obstruc...
von Hippel-Lindau disease
Terson syndrome refers to vitreous hemorrhage associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage, however some authors include retinal hemorrhage as well. The syndrome is a poor prognostic marker in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Terson syndrome has been reported to occur in 13-50...
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to a group of clinical syndromes caused by congenital or acquired compression of the brachial plexus or subclavian vessels as they pass through the superior thoracic aperture.
Clinical presentation will depend on the structure compre...
Top of the basilar syndrome, also known as rostral brainstem infarction, occurs when there is thromboembolic occlusion of the top of the basilar artery. This results in bilateral thalamic ischemia due to occlusion of perforator vessels.
Clinically, top of the basilar synd...
The are numerous vascular syndromes that can occur in the body. They include:
Syndromes principally involving the vascular system
celiac artery compression syndrome
hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome)
hypothenar hammer syndrome
Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by some or all or the following features:
craniofacial dysmorphism (e.g. elfin facies)
short stature (50% of cases)
mild to moderate mental retardation
supravalvular aortic stenosis 2
pulmonary artery stenosis 3
Wyburn-Mason syndrome (also known as Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome) is a rare, nonhereditary neurocutaneous disorder that typically presents with unilateral vascular malformations that primarily involve the brain, orbits and facial structures. It is currently classified as a craniofacial arteri...