Aortic dissection with rupture into the pericardial sac


Aortic dissection is associated with hypertension, Marfan syndrome and a bicuspid aortic valve. It commonly extends antegrade from either close to the aortic root (Type A) or just beyond the left subclavian artery (Type B). Less common is retrograde extension with rupture into the pericardial sac. There is about a 80% mortality within the first 2 weeks and an operative mortality of 25%. Management includes controlling hypertension. Reasons for surgical management include an enlarging aorta and, as in this case, pericardial tamponade. 

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