Hemorrhagic cystitis

Discussion:

Hemorrhagic cystitis is a diffuse inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder due to an infectious or noninfectious etiology, resulting in bleeding from the bladder mucosa. 

Chronic and recurrent hemorrhagic cystitis often results from anticancer chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the treatment of pelvic malignancies. Acute infectious etiologies (both viral and bacterial) are less common except in immunocompromised hosts like bone marrow transplant patients.

These cases can be challenging for the urologist and a source of substantial morbidity (and sometimes mortality) for patients.

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