Rare pediatric case of Hamman syndrome, i.e. spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema.
The patient presented with with a severe cough due to pneumonia, leading to spontaneous pulmonary interstitial emphysema via alveolar rupture. Air tracking to the hilum resulted in pneumomediastinum and extensive subcutaneous emphysema of the neck and upper chest wall, associated with pneumorrhachis and pneumoperitoneum.
Perforation and foreign body aspiration were ruled out.
The case was managed conservatively, with interval improvement on the follow-up x-rays.