Chronic IVC thrombosis with extensive collaterals

Discussion:

Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is an under-reported finding. Congenital anomalies aside, the commonest cause of IVC thrombosis is an IVC filter in situ. 

Thrombosis of the IVC has the same etiologic risk factors as deep vein thrombosis:

  • hypercoagulable states
  • venous stasis
  • compression by neoplastic lesions, lymph nodes, retroperitoneal masses/fibrosis or hemorrhage
  • foreign bodies: vena cava filter, catheters
  • extension from benign tumors: angiomyolipoma, IVC leiomyoma, adrenal pheochromocytoma
  • traumatic liver injury: very rare 
  • malignant process
  • congenital
    • congenital absence of the infrarenal inferior vena cava occurs as a result of the failure of development of the posterior cardinal and supracardinal veins
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