What are the three most common causes of maxillofacial injury?
Blunt trauma - motor vehicle accidents, falls then assault
- Comminuted fractures of the anteroinferior walls of both frontal sinuses, on the right extending obliquely through the posterior wall. These fracture lines extend into the nasal process of the frontal bones, with bilateral comminuted nasal bone fractures additionally.
- Fracture of the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, and the fovea ethmoidalis
- Bilateral comminuted fractures through the ethmoid air cells, including the lamina papyracea (medial orbital wall) bilaterally; lateral displacement of the fractured left medial orbital wall.
- Fracture of the left lateral orbital wall, and diastasis of the left temporozygomatic suture.
- Comminuted fractures of the anterior and medial walls of the maxillary mantra, with mildly comminuted fractures of the posterolateral walls. Extension of fracture into the alveolar process on the right.
- Comminuted fractures of the pterygoid processes and the medial and lateral pterygoid plates bilaterally, more severe with marked displacement of fragments on the right.
- Bilateral comminuted orbital floor fractures, with depression of the orbital floor, but no herniation of the inferior rectus muscles. Mild extraconal haematoma, and intraorbital air.
- Comminuted fracture of the bony nasal septum, with bowing to the right.