What is the treatment of choice for a Type 4 Bosniak cyst?
A total nephrectomy or if the lesion is very peripheral with no associated disease, a partial nephrectomy may be performed.
What are the non-surgical options for a Type III cyst?
Although classified as indeterminate, Type III cysts are essentially treated as if malignant. Treatment has been similar to a Type IV with surgical intervention with a total or partial nephrectomy. However, if small and the patient has co-morbidities, radiofrequency ablation under CT guidance is now an treatment option.
An illustrative example of a Type IV cyst