Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disease that can affect various groups of lymph nodes. It must be distinguished from reactive hyperplasia and malignancy. It is the proliferation of lymph tissue (B cells), often with cytokine production. Although not a malignant disease it is very similar to lymphoma. The disease is usually associated with AIDS and may develop hemolytic anemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Antiviral therapy is effective, but it can affect patients immune system.
In this particular patient this diagnosis was histologically confirmed.