Name some malignant causes of an oesophagorespiratory fistula.
Oesophageal cancer, bronchogenic cancer, and lymphoma. The risk of fistula formation increases following radiotherapy.
Name some benign causes of oesophagorespiratory fistulas.
Penetrating trauma. Ingestion of corrosive substances or foreign bodies. Oesophageal infection. Iatrogenic causes such as surgery, endoscopy, or prolonged intubation.
What does Ono's sign represent?
Ono's sign refer's to immediate patient coughing following swallowing.
After initiating swallowing, the patient aspirated water-soluble low osmolar contrast via a 6 mm tracheoesophageal fistula at the level of the cricopharyngeal muscle (C7 vertebral level).
Aspiration is demonstrated by opacification of the trachea and bronchi.
A jet phenomenon was also demonstrated.
There is also some over-the-top aspiration.