Which is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death?
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death after myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents.
How is the pathophysiology of pulmonary embolism?
Pulmonary embolism occurs when deep venous thrombi detach and embolize to the pulmonary circulation, promoting vascular occlusion and impairing gas exchange and circulation, contributing to ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Besides, humoral mediators such as serotonin and thromboxane are released from activated platelets and may trigger vasoconstriction in the lung's unaffected area.
Which are the most frequent symptoms of acute pulmonary embolism?
The most common acute pulmonary embolism symptoms are dyspnea, chest pain, and cough.
Which are the most common signs of acute pulmonary embolism?
Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, and peripheral vascular collapse are the most common acute pulmonary embolism signs. Cyanosis, hemoptysis, syncope, and the various manifestations of acute cor pulmonale may less commonly occur.
Which are the clinical conditions that may simulate acute pulmonary thromboembolism?
The clinical conditions that have symptoms similar to those of acute pulmonary thromboembolism include pericarditis, acute myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, esophagitis, esophageal rupture, pneumonia, lung cancer, pneumothorax, pleuritis, rib fractures, and metastatic deposits
Which are the imaging modalities available in the evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism?
The imaging modalities available in the evaluation of acute pulmonary embolism include chest radiographs, computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), CT venography (CTV), magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA), nuclear medicine ventilation/perfusion, venous ultrasound, echocardiography, and catheter pulmonary angiography.
Is the chest radiography useful in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism?
The chest radiography is not useful in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, per se, but it is useful in excluding other causes of acute chest pain such as pneumonia, pneumothorax, or pulmonary edema.
In a patient with suspected acute pulmonary embolism and contraindications to CT angiography, what is the significance of deep venous thrombosis (DVT)?
In a patient with suspected acute pulmonary embolism, in whom there are contraindications for CT angiography, the DVT diagnosis by ultrasonography is sufficient to rule pulmonary embolism.
What is the importance of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in pulmonary thromboembolism?
CTPA is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing pulmonary embolism because it is rapid, permits direct visualization of pulmonary emboli, and can demonstrate other potential causes of the patient`s symptoms. The sensitivity and specificity of CT angiography to detect pulmonary embolism approach 100%.
Which lobes of the lungs are more frequently affected in pulmonary embolism?
In the lungs, the lower lobes are more frequently affected than the upper, with bilateral lung involvement common. Larger emboli wedge in the main pulmonary artery, while smaller emboli occlude the peripheral arteries. Peripheral pulmonary embolism can lead to pulmonary infarction, manifested by intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Pulmonary infarction occurs in about 10% -15% of patients without underlying cardiopulmonary disease.
Filling defects in the left upper lobe, middle lobe, and right lower lobe pulmonary artery's lobar and segmental branches in keeping with acute pulmonary emboli.
There is an elevation of the right diaphragm and basal atelectasis in the right lower lobe periphery.
No pleural or pericardial effusion.