Search results for “cerebral atrophy”

141 results found
Article

Neuroferritinopathy

Neuroferritinopathy, also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2 (NBIA type 2), is a disorder of iron metabolism caused by a mutation in the ferritin light chain 1 gene (FTL1) on chromosome 19. Epidemiology Neuroferritinopathy is a rare disorder first described in 2001 ...
Article

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord

Subacute combined degeneration of the cord (SACD) is caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. Epidemiology Most common in patients older than 40 and especially older than 60 7.  Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of SACD is usually with loss of vibration and proprioception in the hands...
Article

Dementia with Lewy bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), also known as Lewy body disease, is a neurodegenerative disease (a synucleinopathy to be specific) related to Parkinson disease (PD). It is reported as the second most common form of dementia following Alzheimer disease (AD), accounting for 15-20% of cases at aut...
Article

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a cerebrovascular disorder caused by the accumulation of cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) in the tunica media and adventitia of leptomeningeal and cortical vessels of the brain. The resultant vascular fragility tends to manifest in normotensive elderly patients as lob...
Article

Vanishing white matter disease

Vanishing white matter disease (VWM), also known as childhood ataxia with central hypomyelination (CACH), is an exceedingly rare entity only fully described in 1997, but due to its name sometimes over-represented in differentials for white matter disease. Epidemiology Most cases are encountere...
Article

HIV associated dementia

HIV associated dementia (HAD), previously referred to as AIDS dementia complex (ADC), corresponds to a neurological clinical syndrome seen in patients with HIV infection. The associated imaging appearance is generally referred to as HIV encephalopathy. Terminology The terms HIV dementia comple...
Article

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to a depression in function, metabolism, and perfusion affecting a cerebellar hemisphere occurring as a result of a contralateral focal supratentorial lesion, classically an infarct.   Clinical presentation Other than neurological deficits and other clinica...
Article

Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, non-inflammatory, non-atherosclerotic progressive vasculo-occlusive disease involving the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries.  Terminology The term moyamoya disease should be reserved for an idiopathic, sometimes familial, ...
Article

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid space in infancy

Benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (BESS or BESSI) also known as benign external hydrocephalus (BEH) is, as per the name, a benign enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infants. It usually involves the frontal lobe subarachnoid spaces, and it is characterized clinically...
Article

Uremic encephalopathy

Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is an acquired toxic syndrome characterized by delirium in patients with untreated or inadequately treated end-stage renal disease. UE is often associated with lethargy and confusion in the acute phase, which can progress to seizures, coma, or both in the chronic phase...
Article

Subdural hygroma

Subdural hygromas refer to the accumulation of fluid in the subdural space. In many cases, it is considered an epiphenomenon of head injury when it is called a traumatic subdural hygroma.  Epidemiology Subdural hygromas are encountered in all age-groups but are overall most common in the elder...
Article

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of many mitochondrial disorders. As mitochondria, which have their own DNA, are exclusively passed on from the mother these disorders are only inherited from the mother. On imaging, it manifests as mult...
Article

Leukoaraiosis

Leukoaraiosis is a radiological term used to describe diffuse white matter changes thought to be related to small vessel disease. Terminology There is no consensus in the literature regarding terminology for leukoaraiosis. The term is often used interchangeably with variations along the lines ...
Article

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a distorted perception of reality and bizarre behavior. While the exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, multiple biological, psychological and social factors are thought to play parts in the development of the disease. Epidemiology ...
Article

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection

Congenital cytomegalovirus infections result from intra-uterine fetal infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV).  Epidemiology CMV is the most common cause of intra-uterine infection and the most common cause of congenital infective and brain damage, occurring in 0.2-2.4% of live births.  Antibodies...
Article

Propionic acidemia

Propionic acidemia is a rare organic acidemia caused by a deficiency in the enzyme propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase.  Epidemiology Propionic acidemia has an incidence of around 1 in 150,000 in the general population 1.   Clinical presentation Around 80% of children with propionic acidemia wi...
Article

Nitrous oxide toxicity

Nitrous oxide (N2O) toxicity has serious medical sequelae affecting both the CNS and the bone marrow. Neurological effects include encephalopathy, myelopathy, and neuropathy. This results from demyelination and gliosis due to selective inhibition of vitamin B12 1. Bone marrow toxicity may lead t...
Article

Hyperostosis frontalis interna

Hyperostosis frontalis interna is characterized by benign overgrowth of the inner table of the frontal bone. The etiology is unknown.  The condition is generally of no clinical significance and an incidental finding.  It is typically bilateral and symmetrical, and may extend to involve the parie...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (M)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter M and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
Article

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a spongiform encephalopathy that results in a rapidly progressive dementia and other non-specific neurological features and death usually within a year or less from onset. The vast majority are sporadic, but familial and acquired forms are also occasionally enc...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.