Articles

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16,798 results found
Article

Sonographic halo sign (disambiguation)

Sonographic halo sign can be useful in a number of situations: hypoechoic halo sign (also known as target or bull's eye sign) in liver metastases: used in hepatobiliary imaging, is a concerning feature for malignant lesion if the lesion is a hyperechoic liver lesion 1,2 ultrasound halo in angi...
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Estimated glomerular filtration rate

The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is widely used as a surrogate marker of renal function and is mathematically derived from the patient's serum creatinine, using their age, sex and ethnicity. There is some controversy over whether ethnicity should be included in the calculations. ...
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Brachial plexitis

Brachial plexitis refers to inflammatory change involving the brachial plexus. This is in contrast to a brachial plexopathy meaning any form of pathology involving the brachial plexus. Epidemiology Brachial plexitis is more commonly seen in men between 30 and 70 years of age and is bilateral i...
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Medium vessel occlusion

Medium vessel occlusion (MeVO), also termed distal medium vessel occlusion (DMVO), describes occlusion of a medium-sized intracranial artery resulting in impending acute ischemic stroke. Definition One consensus definition of ‘medium vessel’ suggests intracranial arteries with a luminal diamet...
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Lacunar stroke syndrome

Lacunar stroke syndrome is a description of the clinical syndrome that results from a lacunar infarct.  Each of the five classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating manner (e.g. the capsular warning syndr...
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Orgogozo stroke scale

The Orgogozo stroke scale was designed to assess middle cerebral artery stroke 1-3. This scale's use has become rarer in contemporary literature due to the widespread adoption of the NIH Stroke Scale, however basic knowledge may assist interpretation of older literature 4,5. Classification con...
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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a relatively common acquired chronic demyelinating disease involving the central nervous system, and is the second most common cause of neurological impairment in young adults, after trauma 19. Characteristically, and by definition, multiple sclerosis is disseminated i...
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Brainstem stroke syndromes

Brainstem stroke syndromes, also known as crossed brainstem syndromes, refer to a group of syndromes that occur secondary to lesions, most commonly infarcts, of the brainstem. Epidemiology Although many different brainstem stroke syndromes have been classically described, the majority appear e...
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Brachial plexus

The brachial plexus is a complex neural network formed by lower cervical and upper thoracic ventral nerve roots which supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb and pectoral girdle. It is located in the neck extending into the axilla posterior to the clavicle. Summary origin: ven...
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Anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus

Anomalous insertion of the medial meniscus (AIMM) is an anatomical variation of the insertion of the anterior root of the medial meniscus.   Terminology Defined as a congenital variation in the insertion of the anterior root of the medial meniscus onto the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The...
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Giant cell glioblastoma

Giant cell glioblastoma is a classic variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and gliosarcoma) and although not distinct diagnoses, they continue to be recognized in the current (2021) WHO classification of CNS tumors 8. This tumor was previously called monstrocellular tumor ...
Article

Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome refers to a genetic and neurodevelopmental condition principally affecting the central nervous system. Epidemiology The reported estimated incidence can variable ranging from around 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 12,000 live births. No definite gender predilection has been described. C...
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RASopathy

RASopathies are a class of developmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes that encode for components or regulators of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Epidemiology As a group, RASopathies represent one of the most common malformation syndromes, with an in...
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Image intensifier

Overview Image intensifiers (II) are used to convert low energy x-radiation into visible light images. Frequently the detector portion of an x-ray C-arm used in operating theaters, the image intensifier has a low scatter input portion made of low absorption substances such as titanium or alumin...
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Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is the most common cause of obesity caused by a genetic syndrome. Clinical presentation Prader-Willi syndrome is primarily characterized by: neonatal hypotonia sexual infancy: hypogonadism obesity morbid obesity resulting from hyperphagi...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
Article

Medullary carcinoma of the breast

Medullary carcinoma of the breast (MCB) is an uncommon subtype of breast cancer and accounts for ~5% 1,4 of all breast cancers. Epidemiology They tend to occur more frequently in younger women than other breast cancer types 7. The mean age of presentation varies from 46-54 years, but in 10% of...
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Mucinous carcinoma of the breast

Mucinous carcinoma of the breast, also known as colloid breast carcinoma, mucoid breast carcinoma, or gelatinous breast carcinoma, is a subtype of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). They account for about ~2% (range 1-7% 4) of breast cancers.  Epidemiology It tends to occur in older women where ...
Article

Pancreatic duct diameter

The diameter of the (main) pancreatic duct is a commonly assessed parameter in imaging. Gross anatomy The duct diameter is greatest at the head and neck region and is slightly narrower towards the body and tail. Its normal reported value ranges between 1-3.5 mm in <50 year old and 2-5 mm in 70...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis

Obliterative bronchiolitis, also known as bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis, is a type of bronchiolitis and refers to bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis associated with luminal stenosis and occlusions. Obliterative bronchiolitis should not be con...

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