Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,882 results found
Article

Renal abscess

Renal abscess is a collection of infective fluid in the kidney. It is usually a sequela of acute pyelonephritis, where severe vasospasm and inflammation may occasionally result in liquefactive necrosis and abscess formation. Epidemiology It can affect all ages and has no recognized gender pred...
Article

Proximal biceps tendon injury

Proximal biceps tendon injuries refer to biceps injuries at the level of the shoulder and usually affect the long head biceps tendon. They comprise strains, partial and complete tears.  Epidemiology Proximal biceps tendon injuries account for about 96% of all biceps injuries 1. Risk factors ...
Article

Lobar nephronia

Lobar nephronia, also known as acute focal nephritis, refers to an intermediate stage between acute pyelonephritis and renal abscess, and is a focal region of interstitial nephritis.  It appears as a wedge of poorly perfused renal parenchyma, without a cortical rim sign. The condition is discu...
Article

Cerebellar infarction

Cerebellar infarction is a relatively uncommon subtype of ischemic stroke. It may involve any of the three arteries supplying the cerebellum: superior cerebellar artery (SCA): superior cerebellar arterial infarct anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA): anterior inferior cerebellar arterial...
Article

Lesser sac

The lesser sac or omental bursa is a potential peritoneal space within the abdomen, part of the peritoneal cavity.  Gross anatomy The lesser sac may be conceptualized as the space posterior to the lesser omentum, between the posterior wall of the stomach and the surface of the peritoneum that ...
Article

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, also known as Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by 1: exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metaphyseal chondrodysplasia bone marrow hypoplasia (cyclic neutropenia) Epidemiology Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rar...
Article

Focal cortical dysplasia

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation, which may demonstrate both architectural and proliferative features. They are one of the most common causes of epilepsy and can be associated with hippocampal sclerosis and cortical glioneuronal n...
Article

Peritoneal loose body

Peritoneal loose bodies or peritoneal mice are calcified pieces of necrotic tissue found in the peritoneal cavity. They are usually asymptomatic and small, ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 cm in size, but rarely may be up to 5 to 10 cm in size.  Clinical presentation Loose bodies are usually asymptomat...
Article

Epiploic appendagitis

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare self-limiting ischemic/inflammatory process that affects the appendices epiploicae of the colon and may either be primary or secondary to adjacent pathology. This article pertains to primary (spontaneous) epiploic appendagitis. The term, along with omental infarct...
Article

Williams-Campbell syndrome

Williams-Campbell syndrome (WCS) is a rare form of congenital cystic bronchiectasis, in which distal bronchial cartilage is defective. Clinical presentation Williams-Campbell syndrome may present with recurrent pneumonia, wheezing, barrel-chest deformity, and Harrison sulcus 8. Pathology It ...
Article

Critical angle (ultrasound)

The critical angle (θc) describes a refractive phenomenon in ultrasonography, whereby a specific incident angle of the sound beam will result in 'total reflection' 1. In this situation, the transmitted sound beam, will run parallel to the boundary of the second tissue without penetrating it 1. T...
Article

Magnets (types)

Magnets used for MRI are of three types: permanent, resistive and superconductive. Permanent MRI magnets Permanent MRI magnets are used in cheaper "economy" systems and involve permanently magnetized iron acting like a bar magnet that has been twisted into a C-shape with the two poles close t...
Article

Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the widely adopted International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia in 2011 2, which shares many features with the previously described classification systems by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  In 2022, an up...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (E)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter E and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
Article

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, also known as endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modi...
Article

Mpox

Mpox, previously known as monkeypox, is a rare zoonosis caused by an orthopoxvirus and in general, produces a mild flu-like illness and rash in humans. Virologically and clinically the condition is similar to smallpox, the first and only viral disease to be eradicated by humans. In 2022, a new o...
Article

Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is the preferred general term for the permanent replacement of lung parenchyma by connective tissue and is typically associated with functional impairment. A variety of insults cause focal or diffuse lung injury (mechanical, infectious, inflammatory and iatrogenic). Lung repai...
Article

Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is not a disease; it is a histopathologic and radiologic pattern of interstitial lung disease which can be caused by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Diagnosis is typically decided by a...
Article

Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype

Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most common adult primary brain tumor and are aggressive, relatively resistant to therapy, and have a corresponding poor prognosis. They typically appear as heterogeneous masses centered in the white matter with irregular peripheral enhancement, central necrosis, and...
Article

Acute hepatitis

Acute hepatitis occurs when the liver suffers an injury resulting in an inflammatory reaction. There are a variety of causal etiologies and imaging findings are often non-specific. Acute hepatitis is primarily a clinical diagnosis and a normal imaging appearance of the liver does not exclude it'...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.