Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,916 results
Article

Multicystic dysplastic kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) is a type of non-heritable pediatric cystic renal disease. It results in multiple cysts being formed in utero in the affected kidney. Epidemiology Unilateral incidence is estimated at 1:2500-4000. There may be a predisposition for the left kidney, a slightl...
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Latissimus dorsi muscle

Latissimus dorsi muscle (plural: latissimi dorsi muscles, and colloquially often shortened to the lats) is one of the muscles that attaches the upper limb to the vertebral column. Summary origin ​spinous processes of T7-T12 vertebrae and thoracolumbar fascia posterior third of the iliac cres...
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Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis

Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) is the most commonly used indirect revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease or syndrome, which provides a way to bypass an occluded internal carotid artery and circle of Willis without having to perform a direct surgical anastomosis.  It involves dis...
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Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia

Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia is a subtype of cemento-osseous dysplasia. It occurs in the posterior aspect of the jaw, namely in the mandibular molar region, away from the periapical aspect of the teeth 2. Epidemiology Most common in the 4th and 5th decades of life. Strong female predilectio...
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Pinned images

Pinned images are added to a file and can be used to add a case to an article. This is useful when you come across a particularly good example of a condition, an unusual feature, or a rare condition that is under-represented. To pin an image, go to the three dots at the top right of the image a...
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Pectoralis minor muscle

The pectoralis minor muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region lying deep to and completely covered by the pectoralis major muscle.  It is an important anatomical landmark in two senses: it arbitrarily divides the axillary artery into 3 parts it arbitrarily divides the axillary lymph nodes in...
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Subclavius muscle

The subclavius muscle is a small triangular muscle of the pectoral region which depresses the shoulder. Summary origin: 1st costochondral joint insertion: subclavian groove on the inferior aspect of the middle third of the clavicle innervation: nerve to subclavius (from nerve roots C5-C6) a...
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Trapezius muscle

The trapezius muscle is a large, broad superficial muscle of the posterior neck and back. It gains its name from its diamond shape. Along with sternocleidomastoid muscle, it is invested by the superficial layer of the deep cervical fascia, which splits around it.  Summary origin: superior nuch...
Article

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is a single midline endocrine organ in the anterior neck responsible for thyroid hormone production which lies in the visceral space completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle layer of the deep cervical fascia). Gross anatomy The thyroid extends from C5 to T1 and lies...
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Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter encompasses causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It includes: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing primary megaureter althoug...
Article

Ciliated hepatic foregut cyst

Ciliated hepatic foregut cysts are a very rare type of hepatic cyst, with non-specific radiological features. They are usually benign, but rare cases of malignant degeneration (to squamous cell carcinoma) have also been reported.  Epidemiology They are more often seen in adults, although a few...
Article

Pectoralis major muscle

The pectoralis major muscle is a large fan-shaped muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but often considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin: medial clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages, and external oblique aponeurosis insertion: lateral l...
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Line focus principle

The line focus principle in radiography explains the relationship between the actual focal spot on the anode surface and the effective focal spot size. Basic concept The focal spot is the area of the target upon which the electron beam strikes. The energy of the electrons in the electron beam ...
Article

Crossed renal ectopia

Crossed renal ectopia is said to be present when the kidney is seen in the opposite retroperitoneal space. It is more common for the left kidney to be ectopically located on the right side. More than 85% of these get fused resulting in crossed fused renal ectopia. Less than 15% cases are non-fus...
Article

Q-Factor

The Q-factor is the ratio of the center frequency (f0) to the bandwidth. High Q-factor transducer indicates a narrow bandwidth and a long spatial pulse length with low damping and narrow bandwidth. This commonly used in doppler ultrasound where a narrow bandwidth is needed to accurately quantif...
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Binning

Binning is a term which at its most abstract implies combining and organizing various elements of data, but in terms of radiology usually implies a technique by which signals arriving from adjacent physical elements of an electronic detector are combined to produce a larger pixel/voxel. This pr...
Article

Hepatic abscess

Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localized collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic, or fungal agents.  Epidemiology The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affe...
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Chronic exertional compartment syndrome

Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), previously known as anterior tibial syndrome, is a type of compartment syndrome that is brought on by exercise. Epidemiology The exact prevalence is not known since sufferers may modify the way they exercise and therefore never present. CECS can ...
Article

Zenker diverticulum

Zenker diverticulum, also known as a pharyngeal pouch, is a posterior outpouching of the hypopharynx, just proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter through a weakness in the muscle layer called the Killian dehiscence. Epidemiology More than 50% of the affected patients present in 60-80 years...
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MRI of the wrist (an approach)

MRI of the wrist is a fairly frequent examination in musculoskeletal radiology practice and not quite as common in general radiological practice. This approach is an example of how to create a radiological report of an MRI of the wrist with coverage of the most common anatomical sites of possibl...

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