Articles

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16,882 results found
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Williams-Campbell syndrome

Williams-Campbell syndrome (WCS) is a rare form of congenital cystic bronchiectasis, in which distal bronchial cartilage is defective. Clinical presentation Williams-Campbell syndrome may present with recurrent pneumonia, wheezing, barrel-chest deformity, and Harrison sulcus 8. Pathology It ...
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Critical angle (ultrasound)

The critical angle (θc) in ultrasonography describes the incidence angle of the sound beam which creates 'total reflection' 1. In this situation, the transmitted sound beam, will run parallel to the boundary of the second tissue without penetrating it 1. The critical angle may be calculated by...
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Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, also known as Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by 1: exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metaphyseal chondrodysplasia bone marrow hypoplasia (cyclic neutropenia) Epidemiology Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rar...
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Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the widely adopted International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia in 2011 2, which shares many features with the previously described classification systems by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  In 2022, an up...
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Focal cortical dysplasia

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation, which may demonstrate both architectural and proliferative features. They are one of the most common causes of epilepsy and can be associated with hippocampal sclerosis and cortical glioneuronal n...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (E)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter E and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, also known as endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modi...
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Mpox

Mpox, previously known as monkeypox, is a rare zoonosis caused by an orthopoxvirus and in general, produces a mild flu-like illness and rash in humans. Virologically and clinically the condition is similar to smallpox, the first and only viral disease to be eradicated by humans. In 2022, a new o...
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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is the preferred general term for the permanent replacement of lung parenchyma by connective tissue and is typically associated with functional impairment. A variety of insults cause focal or diffuse lung injury (mechanical, infectious, inflammatory and iatrogenic). Lung repai...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is not a disease; it is a histopathologic and radiologic pattern of interstitial lung disease which can be caused by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Diagnosis is typically decided by a...
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Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype

Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most common adult primary brain tumor and are aggressive, relatively resistant to therapy, and have a corresponding poor prognosis. They typically appear as heterogeneous masses centered in the white matter with irregular peripheral enhancement, central necrosis, and...
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Acute hepatitis

Acute hepatitis occurs when the liver suffers an injury resulting in an inflammatory reaction. There are a variety of causal etiologies and imaging findings are often non-specific. Acute hepatitis is primarily a clinical diagnosis and a normal imaging appearance of the liver does not exclude it'...
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Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast tissue is removed through a surgical procedure as opposed to a wide local excision. Sometimes, adjacent structures, such as lymph nodes, are removed to prevent recurrence or metastasis. In some cases, mastectomy is d...
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Bone lesions with sequestrum

There are several bony lesions that can involve or produce a sequestrum. They include: Common Brodie abscess: osteomyelitis Less common eosinophilic granuloma certain soft tissue tumors (with bony extension)  undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma lymphoma metastasis (especially from brea...
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Lambl’s excrescence

Lambl’s excrescences, also known as valvular strands, are small, filiform, fibrous strands located on cardiac valves. Epidemiology Thought to be present in 70-80% of adults according to pathological studies, but only ~40% on echocardiograph studies 1. When present, multiple Lambl’s excrescence...
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Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumors 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are helpful in detecting hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with liver me...
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Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies and can be isolated or associated with lung pathology. Historically, a size cut-off of 10 mm short-axis diameter was used.  Terminology The term mediastinal lymphadenopathy implies lymph node disease and is not synon...
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Distal phalanx fracture

Distal phalanx fractures are among the most common fractures in the hand.  They represent > 50% of all phalangeal fractures and frequently involve the ungual tuft 1. They are frequently related to sports, with lesions such as the mallet finger and the Jersey finger. When associated with a crus...
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Stress fracture

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in the bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Terminology A pathological fracture, although a type of insufficiency fracture, is a term in general reserved for fractures occurring at the site of ...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, frequently referred to as pancreatic cancer, makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. Epidemiology Pancreatic cancer accounts for 22% of all deaths due to gastrointestina...

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