Articles

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16,905 results found
Article

OK sign test

The OK sign test is a clinical test to evaluate for potential injury of the anterior interosseous nerve. Gross anatomy The anterior interosseous nerve (roots C8-T1)is a branch off the median nerve (roots C6-T1), arising just after the median nerve passes through the two heads of the pronator t...
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Cellulitis

Cellulitis (rare plural: cellulitides) is an acute infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissues without deep fascial or muscular involvement. It results in pain, erythema, edema, and warmth. Since the epidermis is not involved, cellulitis is not transmitted by person-to-person contact. Epid...
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Ideberg classification of glenoid fractures

The Ideberg classification is a commonly used system to describe glenoid fractures 1. Glenoid fractures are uncommon shoulder fractures but are important to recognize as they are often associated with concomitant injuries to the head, brachial plexus, thorax and humerus 2. Usage The Ideberg cl...
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Bickerstaff encephalitis

Bickerstaff encephalitis, also known as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, is a rare immune-mediated condition, often a phenotype of the anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome. Epidemiology Bickerstaff encephalitis is very rare. it typically affects adult patients in early to middle age 4. Clinical pre...
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Diaphragmatic rupture

Diaphragmatic rupture or injury often results from blunt abdominal trauma. The mechanism of injury is typically a motor-vehicle collision. Epidemiology Given that the most common mechanism is motor vehicle collisions, it is perhaps unsurprising that young men are most frequently affected. The ...
Article

Iannetti classification of orbital invasion

The Iannetti classification grades orbital invasion by sinonasal tumors. Usage There is no universally accepted classification system (c.2021) for assessing orbital invasion by sinonasal tumors and other grading systems, including those proposed by McCary et al. and Neel et al. 2. Classificat...
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Scleroderma (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma are common although variable and are a major contributor to morbidity 7. For a general discussion of scleroderma, please refer to the parent article: scleroderma. Epidemiology Symptomatic joints are present in ~40% (range 12-65%) of patients when ...
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Hyperextension cervical injuries

Hyperextension cervical injuries are not uncommon and extremely serious: Anterior longitudinal ligament injury. avulsion fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) vertical fracture through the posterior arch of the atlas as a result of compression fractures of the dens of C2 hangman ...
Article

Preinvasive adenocarcinoma lesion of the lung

Preinvasive lesions for lung adenocarcinoma are a category of small non-invasive lung lesions which are closely related to adenocarcinoma of the lung. They may represent a spectrum of premalignant to low-grade malignant lesions. The category includes two types of lesions: atypical adenomatous ...
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Olfactory neuroblastoma

Olfactory neuroblastomas, also known as esthesioneuroblastomas (the spelling aesthesioneuroblastoma is considered archaic), are tumors arising from the basal layer of the olfactory epithelium in the superior recess of the nasal cavity. They usually present as a soft tissue mass in the superior o...
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Sinonasal disease

The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are host to many diseases and conditions, collectively termed sinonasal disease. Pathology inflammatory and infective conditions sinusitis acute sinusitis Pott puffy tumor chronic sinusitis fungal sinusitis non-invasive: hyphae do not invade mucosa...
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Inferior vena caval thrombosis

Inferior vena caval thrombosis is an essential diagnosis while evaluating any neoplastic lesion, or portal hypertension. It is also important to differentiate bland thrombus from tumor thrombus. Clinical features A patient can present with many features which include bilateral pedal edema Bu...
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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (IVC) (plural: inferior venae cavae) is one of the great vessels that drains venous blood from the lower limbs, pelvis and abdomen into the right atrium of the heart. Gross anatomy The inferior vena cava is formed by the confluence of the two common iliac veins at the L5...
Article

Blade of grass sign (Paget disease)

The blade of grass sign, also called the candle flame sign, refers to the lucent leading edge in a long bone seen during the lytic phase of Paget disease of bone. The blade of grass sign is characteristic of Paget disease of bone. This is akin to osteoporosis circumscripta cranii seen in the sk...
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Acetabular fracture

Acetabular fractures are a type of pelvic fracture, which may also involve the ilium, ischium or pubis depending on fracture configuration. Epidemiology Acetabular fractures are uncommon. The reported incidence is approximately 3 per 100,000 per year. This study reported a 63% to 37% male to f...
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Filarial dance sign

The filarial dance sign refers to a twirling motion of macrofilariae (adult worms; e.g. W. bancrofti) in dilated lymphatic channels. It is identified as a characteristic sign of scrotal filariasis. The dilated channels are identified with the absence of color flow on color Doppler study and the...
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Particle disease

Particle disease refers to aggressive granulomatosis, periprosthetic osteolysis, and arthroplasty loosening and failure. While typically associated with hip arthroplasty, it has also been reported in shoulder, knee, and phalangeal joint replacements 11-13. Pathology The theory is that synoviti...
Article

Scleroderma

Scleroderma, also known as systemic sclerosis, is an autoimmune connective tissue disorder characterized by multisystem fibrosis and soft tissue calcification. As such, it affects many separate organ systems, which are discussed separately: musculoskeletal manifestations of scleroderma pulmona...
Article

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune multisystemic inflammatory disease that affects many organs but predominantly attacks the synovial tissues and joints. The pediatric condition, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is discussed separately. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is 0.5-...
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Robust rheumatoid arthritis

Robust rheumatoid arthritis, also known as arthritis robust or rheumatoid robustus, refers to a rare variant of rheumatoid arthritis with marked subchondral cysts (geodes) and preserved bone density 1,2. Patients remain in good health usually with few - or even no - symptoms, hence the epithet "...

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