Articles

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16,882 results found
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Myositis ossificans

Myositis ossificans is the most common form of heterotopic ossification, usually within large muscles. Its importance stems in large part from its ability to mimic more aggressive pathological processes. Myositis ossificans is one of the skeletal “don’t touch” lesions. Some conditions are relat...
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Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconioses are a broad group of lung diseases that are usually categorized as resulting from inhalation of dust particles. They are therefore considered part of the spectrum of inhalational lung diseases, and also occupational lung diseases. Epidemiology Associations Caplan syndrome Vari...
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Asbestosis

Asbestosis is an occupational fibrotic lung disease associated with high levels of asbestos fiber inhalation. Fibrosis is lower lobe predominant and can progress. Even without progression the risk of lung cancer is increased. The presence of pleural plaques is variable 10. Epidemiology Asbest...
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Stoma

A stoma (plural stomata) is defined as an artificially created connection between two hollow organs or a hollow organ and the skin. A surgical procedure that involves the creation of a stoma carries the suffix "-ostomy". For a discussion of imaging features and potential complications, please r...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (B)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter B and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
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Monochorionic twin pregnancy

A monochorionic twin pregnancy is a type of monozygotic twin pregnancy where the twins share a single chorion. Depending on the sharing of the amnion this can be further divided into two types: monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) pregnancy: single amnion monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancy...
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Alar ligament

The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper posterior margin of the dens of C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. They may be oblique or vertical and are thickest at the occipital a...
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade destructive metastasizing PEComatous tumor 1 resulting from the proliferation of LAM cells in the lung, kidney and axial lymphatics. The disease is caused by mutations of the TSC2 or TSC1 genes and is more commonly sporadic rather than inherited. Cys...
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Sarcoidosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in ~20% (range 4-38%) of patients with sarcoidosis and include joint involvement, bone lesions, and muscular disease. Approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis have associated arthropathy.  Pathology joints: joint involvement in sarcoido...
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Monozygotic twin pregnancy

A monozygotic (MZ) twin pregnancy results from the division of single zygote following fertilization, resulting in identical genetic material. These twins are therefore always of the same sex. Epidemiology Monozygotic twins account for approximately 30% of all twin pregnancies 1. The estimated...
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Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), less commonly known as stuck twin syndrome, is a potential complication that can occur in a monochorionic twin pregnancy (either MCDA or MCMA).  Epidemiology This complication can occur in ~10% (range 15-25%) of monochorionic pregnancies, giving an est...
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Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures are uncommon injuries usually resulting from high-energy blunt trauma. They are considered a specific type of basilar skull fracture, and importantly can be seen along with craniocervical dissociation. Treatment of isolated injury is generally conservative, unless t...
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Tumefactive perivascular spaces

Tumefactive perivascular spaces are a rare finding of enlargement of perivascular spaces. It is important to recognize this condition as it can be easily mistaken for a neoplasm and also rarely local mass effect from TPVS can result in a complication. Clinical presentation Small case series of...
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Large language models

Large language models are advanced artificial intelligence systems designed to understand and generate human-like text. These models are built using deep learning techniques and are trained on vast amounts of text data, such as books, articles, and websites. Large language models utilize algorit...
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Round pneumonia

Round pneumonia is a type of pneumonia usually only seen in pediatric patients. They are well defined, rounded opacities that represent regions of infected consolidation. Epidemiology The mean age of patients with round pneumonia is 5 years and 90% of patients who present with round pneumonia ...
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Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome)

Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in alcoholics (SESA syndrome) is a rare complication of chronic alcohol use that can present with seizures and a variety of neurological deficits.  Epidemiology SESA syndrome is rare 1-3.  Clinical presentation The typical clinical presentation is of con...
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Congenital megaureter

A congenital (primary) megaureter encompasses causes of an enlarged ureter which are intrinsic to the ureter, rather than as a result of a more distal abnormality; e.g. bladder, urethra (see secondary megaureter). It includes: obstructed primary megaureter refluxing primary megaureter althoug...
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Gastric antral web

Gastric antral webs are a ring of mucosa in the distal stomach (gastric antrum) that can lead to gastric outlet obstruction. A circumferential ring of mucosa has also been termed a "gastric antral diaphragm". Epidemiology Gastric antral webs are rare. There is an association with trisomy 21 an...
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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder that is characterized by a predisposition to having epileptic seizures and can take many clinical forms and have many potential etiologies. Epilepsy is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) as 1: at least two or more unprovoked (...
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Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein​ antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) represents a group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders united by the presence of IgG antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). MOGAD represents a distinct clinical entity that clinically overlaps but is n...

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