Articles

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16,798 results found
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Pancreatic duct diameter

The diameter of the (main) pancreatic duct is a commonly assessed parameter in imaging. Gross anatomy The duct diameter is greatest at the head and neck region and is slightly narrower towards the body and tail. Its normal reported value ranges between 1-3.5 mm in <50 year old and 2-5 mm in 70...
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Obliterative bronchiolitis

Obliterative bronchiolitis, also known as bronchiolitis obliterans or constrictive bronchiolitis, is a type of bronchiolitis and refers to bronchiolar inflammation with submucosal peribronchial fibrosis associated with luminal stenosis and occlusions. Obliterative bronchiolitis should not be con...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called hepatoma, is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is strongly associated with cirrhosis, from both alcohol and viral etiologies. Hepatocellular carcinomas constitute approximately 5% of all cancers partly due to the high endemic rates of...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (M)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter M and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Diastematomyelia

Diastematomyelia, also known as a split cord malformation, refers to a type of spinal dysraphism (spina bifida occulta) when there is a longitudinal split in the spinal cord.  Terminology Although traditionally it has been distinguished from diplomyelia (in which the cord is duplicated rather ...
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Giant cell glioblastoma

Giant cell glioblastoma is a classic variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and gliosarcoma) and although not distinct diagnoses, they continue to be recognized in the current (2021) WHO classification of CNS tumors 8. This tumor was previously called monstrocellular tumor ...
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Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. It is the most common cause of obesity caused by a genetic syndrome. Clinical presentation Prader-Willi syndrome is primarily characterized by: neonatal hypotonia sexual infancy: hypogonadism obesity morbid obesity resulting from hyperphagi...
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Angelman syndrome

Angelman syndrome refers to a genetic and neurodevelopmental condition principally affecting the central nervous system. Epidemiology The reported estimated incidence can variable ranging from around 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 12,000 live births. No definite gender predilection has been described. C...
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Tumefactive demyelinating lesion

Tumefactive demyelinating lesion (TDL), also sometimes referred to as monofocal acute inflammatory demyelination (MAID), is a locally aggressive form of demyelination, usually manifesting as a solitary lesion (or sometimes a couple of lesions) greater than 2 cm that may mimic a neoplasm on imagi...
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Melorheostosis

Melorheostosis, also known as Leri disease, is an uncommon mesenchymal dysplasia manifesting as regions of sclerosing bone with a characteristic dripping wax appearance (a.k.a. flowing candle wax appearance).  Epidemiology Although changes occur in early childhood, age at presentation is often...
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Dripping candle wax sign (melorheostosis)

Dripping candle wax sign, also known as flowing candle wax appearance, describes the appearance of sclerotic cortical thickening in melorheostosis. The irregular cortical hyperostosis typically occurs on one side of the involved bone and undulates along much like melted wax down a candle. Patho...
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Image intensifier

Overview Image intensifiers (II) are used to convert low energy x-radiation into visible light images. Frequently the detector portion of an x-ray C-arm used in operating theaters, the image intensifier has a low scatter input portion made of low absorption substances such as titanium or alumin...
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Subaponeurotic fluid collection

Subaponeurotic fluid collections are a rare cause of head swelling in young neonates. They are thought to be due to birth trauma from assisted delivery, e.g. prolonged assisted delivery or ventouse delivery, with associated microfistula development that leads to CSF leakage. Delayed subaponeuro...
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Calcaneal inclination angle

The calcaneal inclination angle, also known as the calcaneal pitch, is useful in assessing medial arch height.  Measurement This angle is formed on a weight-bearing lateral foot radiograph between the calcaneal inclination axis (i.e. most inferior part of the calcaneus) and the supporting hori...
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Pes cavus

Pes cavus, also known as talipes cavus, refers to a descriptive term for a type of foot deformity with an abnormally high longitudinal arch of the foot (caved-in foot). Epidemiology Associations It is often associated with certain neuromuscular disorders such as: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease:...
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Sheehan vessels

Sheehan vessels refer to vessels that arise from neovascularity that develops due to pulmonary hypertension, particularly, but not exclusively, in the context of Eisenmenger syndrome. Pathology The exact pathogenesis of Sheehan vessels has not been fully elucidated, but it is felt that neovasc...
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Investigating seizures (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Seizures are a common medical emergency and presentation to emergency departments 1-3. All new seizures or changes in seizure activity merit assessment with neurologists, and usually require neuroimaging 3,4. They can be di...
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Multipartite hallux sesamoid

Multipartite hallux sesamoids are a commonly seen normal variant, present in up to 33% of hallux sesamoids. They are more commonly bipartite than tripartite.  The medial (tibial) sesamoid is more likely to be multipartite than the lateral (fibular) sesamoid because it more commonly has more tha...
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Intracranial hemorrhage (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intracranial hemorrhage refers to bleeding within the intracranial cavity and is, therefore, a catch-all term which includes parenchymal (intra-axial) hemorrhage and the various types of extra-axial hemorrhage including, su...
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Investigating focal weakness (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Investigating focal weakness makes up a large proportion of the workload for neurologists and neuroradiologists. A wide range of serious CNS disorders can present with focal weakness. Appropriate timely imaging can guide di...

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