Articles

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16,879 results found
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Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures

The Neer classification of proximal humeral fractures is probably the most frequently used system along with the AO classification of proximal humeral fractures. The terminology and factors which influence the classification are essential for the utility of radiology reports of proximal humeral ...
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Disarticulation

The term disarticulation refers to the disconnection of all or part of a limb from the body, specifically through a joint. This is in contrast to amputation, which is the disconnection or removal of the structure through a bone 1,2.
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Regenerative liver nodule

Regenerative liver nodules are a form of non-neoplastic nodules that arise in a cirrhotic liver. Terminology This may be slightly different from the term nodular regenerative hyperplasia, which are described histopathologically as regenerative nodules with little or no hepatic fibrosis and lar...
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Caudate nucleus

Caudate nuclei are paired nuclei which along with the globus pallidus and putamen are referred to as the corpus striatum, and collectively make up the basal ganglia. The caudate nuclei have both motor and behavioral functions, in particular maintaining body and limb posture, as well as controlli...
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Anterior corticospinal tract

The anterior corticospinal tract is formed at the level of the of the medullary pyramids, where the majority (90%) of descending corticospinal tract fibers decussate to form the lateral corticospinal tract. The remaining non-decussating fibers (10%) form the much smaller anterior corticospinal t...
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Rectal cancer response assessment

Assessment of rectal cancer response to therapy, which may be chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination, relies on the synthesis of clinical, endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.  The purpose of neoadjuvant therapy is to downstage the tumor, to facilitate surgical resection, and reduce loca...
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Choledochal cyst

Choledochal cysts represent congenital cystic dilatations of the biliary tree. Diagnosis relies on excluding other conditions as a cause of biliary duct dilatation, e.g. tumor, gallstone, inflammation. Epidemiology Choledochal cysts are rare, with an incidence of 1:100,000-150,000. Although th...
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Rathke cleft cyst

Rathke cleft cysts, also known as pars intermedia cysts, are non-neoplastic, sellar or suprasellar epithelium-lined cysts arising from the embryologic remnants of Rathke pouch in the pituitary gland. They are common lesions and usually incidentally identified.  Epidemiology common, found in ~1...
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Rathke pouch

Rathke pouch, also known as hypophyseal diverticulum, is an ectodermal outpouching of stomodeum (primitive oral cavity lined by ectoderm) which forms at approximately 3-4 weeks gestation and goes on to form the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. Gross anatomy The anterior wall of the pouc...
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Pituitary gland

The pituitary gland (a.k.a. hypophysis cerebri), together with its connections to the hypothalamus, acts as the main endocrine interface between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.  Gross anatomy The pituitary gland sits atop the base of the skull in a concavity within the sph...
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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome

Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a rare complication seen after treatment of long-standing severe carotid stenosis by carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. It is believed to be the result of failure of normal cerebral blood flow autoregulation.  Terminology Cerebral hyperperfus...
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Molar pregnancy

Molar pregnancies, also called hydatidiform moles, are one of the most common forms of gestational trophoblastic disease.  Epidemiology Molar pregnancies are one of the common complications of gestation, estimated to occur in one of every 1000-2000 pregnancies 3. These moles can occur in a pre...
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Corticospinal tract

The corticospinal tract (also known as the pyramidal tract) is a descending white matter tract primarily concerned with motor function that extends caudally from the motor cortex to synapse with motor neurons of the spinal cord in the anterior horns.  Gross anatomy Central connections Cortico...
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Internal capsule

The internal capsule (TA: capsula interna) is a deep subcortical structure that contains a concentration of afferent and efferent white matter projection fibers. Anatomically, this is an important area because of the high concentration of both motor and sensory projection fibers 1,2. Afferent fi...
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Fornix (brain)

The fornix (plural: fornices) is the main efferent system of the hippocampus and an important part of the limbic system. It is one of the commissural fibers connecting the cerebral hemispheres. Gross anatomy Roughly C-shaped, the fornix extends from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies of ...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, frequently referred to as pancreatic cancer, makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. Epidemiology Pancreatic cancer accounts for 22% of all deaths due to gastrointestina...
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Bickerstaff encephalitis

Bickerstaff encephalitis, also known as Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, is a rare immune-mediated condition, often a phenotype of the anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome. Epidemiology Bickerstaff encephalitis is very rare. it typically affects adult patients in early to middle age 4. Clinical pre...
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Miller Fisher syndrome

Miller Fisher syndrome is an immune-mediated condition characterized by the triad of cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, and external ophthalmoplegia. It is believed to represent, along with several other entities, different clinical manifestations of a similar underlying autoimmune disorder, the anti...
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Miliary tuberculosis

Miliary tuberculosis is an uncommon pulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Pathology Miliary tuberculosis represents hematogenous dissemination of uncontrolled tuberculous infection and carries a relatively poor prognosis. It is seen in primary and post-primary tuberculosis and may be associ...
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Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast tissue is removed through a surgical procedure as opposed to a wide local excision. Sometimes, adjacent structures, such as lymph nodes, are removed to prevent recurrence or metastasis. In some cases, mastectomy is d...

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