Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,883 results found
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Quadriceps tendon rupture

Quadriceps tendon rupture is usually associated with forced flexion of the knee or a direct blow, although spontaneous ruptures are reported. Pathology Predisposing illnesses include:  connective tissue disorders  systemic lupus erythematosus rheumatoid arthritis gout renal impairment  c...
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Soft tissue sarcoma

Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of mesenchymal origin (sarcoma) that originate from the soft tissues rather than bone. They are classified on the basis of tissue seen on histology. The more common sarcomas in the adult and pediatric populations are listed below...
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Choroid plexus xanthogranuloma

Choroid plexus xanthogranulomata are common, incidental and almost invariably asymptomatic lesions. It is unclear in much of the literature whether they represent a distinct entity from adult choroid plexus cysts, but they share imaging characteristics and are only likely to be distinguishable o...
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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune multisystemic inflammatory disease that affects many organs but predominantly attacks the synovial tissues and joints. Epidemiology The overall prevalence is 0.5-1% and the disease is 2-3 times more common in women 1. Onset is generally in adu...
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Cecal volvulus

Cecal volvulus describes torsion of the cecum around its mesentery which often results in obstruction. If unrecognised, it can result in bowel perforation and fecal peritonitis. Epidemiology Cecal volvulus accounts for ~10% of all intestinal volvuluses, and generally occur in somewhat younger ...
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Behçet disease (CNS manifestations)

CNS manifestations of Behçet disease, also known as neuro-Behçet disease, corresponds to the neurological involvement of the systemic vasculitis Behçet disease and has a variety of manifestations.  For a discussion of the disease, in general, please refer to Behçet disease article.  Epidemiolo...
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Cascade sign (Behçet disease)

The cascade sign, also known as the waterfall sign, is a radiological sign appreciated on MRI brain that is described in patients with neuro-Behçet disease involving the mesodiencephalic junction. The sign describes the involvement of the mesodiencephalic junction as seen on coronal T2/FLAIR se...
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Posterosuperior impingement of the shoulder

Posterosuperior impingement, also known as internal impingement, is a relatively uncommon form of shoulder impingement primarily involving the infraspinatus tendon and the posterosuperior glenoid labrum. It occurs when the shoulder is abducted and externally rotated (ABER position). Clinical pr...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also known as uterine fibroids, are benign tumors of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. Epidemiology They are clinically apparent in ~25% of women of re...
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Pituitary macroadenoma

Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar mass in adults, and responsible for the majority of transsphenoidal hypophysectomies. They are defined as pituitary adenomas greater than 10 mm in size and are approximately twice as common as pituitary microadenomas.  On imaging, they usu...
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Osteomyelitis pubis

Osteomyelitis pubis refers to infectious inflammation of the symphysis pubis. Epidemiology It may account for accounts for 2% of hematogenous osteomyelitis and accounts for less than 1% of all bone infections. Pathology It can occur either secondarily to hematogenous bacterial implantation o...
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Exophytic sinonasal papilloma

Exophytic sinonasal papillomas (ESP) or fungiform sinonasal papillomas are a benign sinonasal tumor arising from the nasal septum, and one of the three main histological forms a Schneiderian papilloma can take. Epidemiology Exophytic sinonasal papillomas are the second most common form of sino...
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Glioblastoma, IDH-wildtype

Glioblastomas (GBM) are the most common adult primary brain tumor and are aggressive, relatively resistant to therapy, and have a corresponding poor prognosis. They typically appear as heterogeneous masses centered in the white matter with irregular peripheral enhancement, central necrosis, and...
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Fetal bowel dilatation

Fetal bowel dilatation can occur from many causes, which include: intestinal atresias: mainly distal anal atresia apple-peel intestinal atresia ileal atresia jejunal atresia jejuno-ileal atresia Hirschsprung disease megacystis microcolon hyperperistalsis syndrome 4 congenital chloride d...
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Diaphragmatic paralysis

Diaphragmatic paralysis (also considered very similar to the term diaphragmatic palsy) can be unilateral or bilateral. Clinical presentation The diaphragm is the most important muscle of ventilation. Clinical features are highly variable according to underlying etiological factors: unilateral...
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Sniff test

The fluoroscopic sniff test is a useful addition to diaphragm fluoroscopy and is used to evaluate diaphragmatic contraction and excursion in patients with suspected phrenic nerve palsy, breathing difficulties following stroke or recent elevation of a hemidiaphragm on chest radiograph. US can al...
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Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia

Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia, or simply bottom of sulcus dysplasia, refers to a highly epileptogenic and localized focal cortical dysplasia that is anatomically restricted to, and maximal at, the bottom of a cortical sulcus. Epidemiology The true incidence is not known given botto...
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Diaphragmatic eventration

Diaphragmatic eventration refers to an abnormal contour of the diaphragmatic dome with no disruption to the diaphragmatic continuity. It typically affects only a segment of the hemidiaphragm, compared to paralysis/weakness where the entire hemidiaphragm is typically affected.  Epidemiology Ass...
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Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

Cavernous transformation of the portal vein, aka a portal cavernoma, is a sequela of portal vein thrombosis and consists of the bypass of the normal single channel portal vein with numerous, tortuous venous collaterals. For a discussion of demographics and presentation, please refer to the arti...
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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the largest cardiac venous structure. It returns the majority of the blood supply for the left ventricle to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains int...

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