Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,879 results found
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Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped musculomembranous sac located along the undersurface of the liver. It functions to accumulate and concentrate bile between meals. Gross anatomy The normal adult gallbladder measures from 7-10 cm in length and 3-4 cm in transverse diameter 6. It communicates wit...
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz. Epidemiology The incidence of acute upper GI bleeding is ~100 per 100,000 adults per year. Upper GI bleeding is twice as common in men as in women and increases in prevalence with age 5. The demog...
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Left gastric artery

The left gastric artery (LGA) is the smallest and first branch of the celiac artery.   Gross anatomy The left gastric artery passes superiorly over the left crus of the diaphragm, approaching the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, giving off an esophageal branch to the distal esophagus, then...
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Pseudocoarctation of the aorta

Pseudocoarctation of the aorta is a rare anomaly characterized by kinking or buckling of the descending aorta at the level of the ligamentum arteriosum with no significant pressure gradient across the lesion, (< 10 mmHg). Epidemiology Associations Rarely reported associations include 3: cong...
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Radiology (journal)

Radiology is a peer-reviewed monthly journal published by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Its first edition was issued in September 1923 1. Impact factor According to the Radiology website, the journal's impact factor for 2022 is 19.7. Its Eigenfactor score is 0.05185, based ...
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Transmantle sign (brain)

The transmantle sign is an MRI feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), almost exclusively seen in type II (ILAE/Blumcke classification), and especially in type IIb 1-5. Pathology The transmantle sign is believed to be related to abnormal function of, or injury to radial glial fibers (which ...
Article

Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis (plural: osteonecroses) is a generic term referring to the ischemic death of the constituents of bone. It has a wide variety of causes and can affect nearly any bone in the body. Most sites of involvement have an eponym associated with osteonecrosis of that area (see list below), a...
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Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (historical)

Hemangiopericytomas of the meninges are rare tumors of the meninges, now considered to be an aggressive form of solitary fibrous tumors of the dura. They often present as large and locally aggressive dural masses, frequently extending through the skull vault. They are difficult to distinguish on...
Article

Sarcoidosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in ~20% (range 4-38%) of patients with sarcoidosis and include joint involvement, bone lesions, and muscular disease. Approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis have associated arthropathy.  Pathology joints: joint involvement in sarcoido...
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Facet joint arthropathy

Facet joint arthropathy (also known as facet joint arthrosis) is a common cause of low back pain and is most commonly due to osteoarthritis. It occurs from facet joint chondral loss, osteophyte formation and hypertrophy of the articular processes that may cause spinal canal stenosis in severe ca...
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Cystic nephroma

Cystic nephromas, previously known as multilocular cystic nephromas, are rare benign renal neoplasms classically occurring in adult females in the 4th and 5th decades. As of the 2016 WHO classification, they are considered distinct from pediatric cystic nephromas which have associated DICER1 gen...
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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in adults. CT is the mainstay for colon cancer locoregional staging and MRI is the mainstay for rectal cancer locoregional staging. This article focuses on co...
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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), as the name would suggest, is featured by a monophasic acute inflammation and demyelination of white matter typically following a recent (1-2 weeks prior) viral infection or vaccination 4,6. Grey matter, especially that of the basal ganglia, is also o...
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Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein​ antibody-associated disease (MOGAD) represents a group of inflammatory demyelinating disorders united by the presence of IgG antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). It is becoming increasingly evident that MOGAD represents a distinct clinical...
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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, previously known as extrinsic allergic alveolitis, represents a group of immune-mediated pulmonary disorders characterized by an inflammatory and/or fibrotic reaction affecting the lung parenchyma and small airways. Its diagnosis relies on a constellation of findin...
Article

Sprengel deformity

Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of the scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. An initial diagnosis can often be made on radiographs, but CT or MRI is often necessary to evaluate the details of the abnormality. Epidemio...
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Radial bands sign (tuberous sclerosis)

The radial bands sign, also known as radial migration bands, refers to linear bands seen on MRI, radiating from the periventricular white matter to the subcortical region, thought to be specific for tuberous sclerosis 1,2. Pathology The exact pathogenesis of radial bands is uncertain, but they...
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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is the preferred general term for the permanent replacement of lung parenchyma by connective tissue and is typically associated with functional impairment. A variety of insults cause focal or diffuse lung injury (mechanical, infectious, inflammatory and iatrogenic). Lung repai...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is not a disease; it is a histopathologic and radiologic pattern of interstitial lung disease which can be caused by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis or non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Diagnosis is typically decided by a...
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Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of interstitial lung diseases after UIP. NSIP is commonly associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) and the underlying diagnosis and management are best decided by a multidisciplinar...

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