Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,879 results found
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Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal arthritis

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT) or triscaphe joint arthritis is common, occurring on ~9% (range 2-16%) of wrist radiographs 3,4. It is typically degenerative (i.e. osteoarthritis) affecting the triscaphe articulation and presents with radial-sided wrist or base of thumb pain in patients over 50 ...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is a congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Pathology Th...
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Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor

Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumors (SCPFT) or PRDM10-rearranged soft tissue tumors are rare low-grade mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis 1-3 that have been just added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020 2,3. Epidemiology Superficial CD34-positive fi...
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Optic pathway glioma

Optic pathway gliomas are relatively uncommon tumors, with a variable clinical course and usually seen in the setting of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Histologically the majority are pilocytic astrocytomas. They are characterized by imaging by an enlarged optic nerve seen either on CT or MRI....
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Machine learning processes

The specifics of how a machine learning algorithm is trained to recognize certain features and thereby become able to make accurate predictions on new examples varies depending on the type of data being used and the algorithm architecture. Four of the most commonly used learning processes are: ...
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Periaqueductal grey matter

Periaqueductal grey (PAG) matter is a column of grey matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius in the midbrain. The periaqueductal grey matter extends from the superior border of the midbrain (which forms the posterior aspect of the floor of the third ventricle), inferiorly towards ...
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Uremic encephalopathy

Uremic encephalopathy is an acquired toxic syndrome characterized by delirium in patients with untreated or inadequately treated acute or chronic kidney disease 13. Uremic encephalopathy is often associated with lethargy and confusion in the acute phase, which can progress to seizures, coma, or ...
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Dentate nucleus

The dentate nucleus is the largest and most lateral of the cerebellar nuclei, located medially within each cerebellar hemisphere, just posterolateral to the fourth ventricle 1. It is part of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret, connected to the contralateral red nucleus via the superior cereb...
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Lipohemarthrosis

Lipohemarthrosis results from an intra-articular fracture with escape of fat and blood from the bone marrow into the joint, and is most frequently seen in the knee, associated with a tibial plateau fracture or distal femoral fracture; rarely a patellar fracture. They have also been described in ...
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Classification system for malformations of cortical development

The classification system for malformations of cortical development organizes myriad conditions into one of three major underlying groups according to the main underlying mechanism: group I: abnormal cell proliferation or apoptosis group II: abnormal neuronal migration group III: abnormal cor...
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Phantom

A phantom or imaging phantom is a highly specialized object utilized in medical imaging for quality control, equipment calibration, dosimetry, and education. The use of the name is used interchangeably for each object despite their differences. There are two main types of phantom, anthropomorph...
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Gallstones

Gallstones, also called cholelithiasis, are concretions that may occur anywhere within the biliary system, most commonly within the gallbladder.  Terminology Gallstones (cholelithiasis) describe stone formation at any point along the biliary tree. Specific names can be given to gallstones depe...
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Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a type of heart failure with normal or near-normal ejection fraction and objective evidence of diastolic dysfunction. Terminology Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was initially termed ‘diastolic heart failure' and was repl...
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Colonic pseudo-obstruction

Colonic pseudo-obstruction, also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a potentially fatal condition leading to an acute colonic distention without an underlying mechanical obstruction. It is defined as an acute pseudo-obstruction and dilatation of the colon in the absence of any mechanical obstruction....
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Tubulinopathy

Tubulinopathies refer to a wide spectrum of cortical malformations that result from defects in genes encoding the tubulin protein that regulates neuronal migration during brain development. Clinical presentation Some series report a high prevalence of seizures during infancy which may be the i...
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Adrenal adenoma

Adrenal adenomas (alternative plural: adenomata) are the most common adrenal lesion and are often found incidentally during abdominal imaging for other reasons. In all cases, but especially in the setting of known current or previous malignancy, adrenal adenomas need to be distinguished from adr...
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Sinonasal carcinoma

Sinonasal carcinomas are a broad group of sinonasal malignant tumors that are of epithelial cell origin/lineage. Pathology Sinonasal carcinomas can be classified into various histological and etiological subgroups: sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: considered the most common histological sub...
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T-prolymphocytic leukemia

T-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a rare and unusual hematological malignancy. Terminology In the WHO classification, this is referred to as T-prolymphocytic leukemia rather than T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Epidemiology It represents around 2% of all mature lymphocytic leukaemias in a...
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Ischiofemoral impingement

Ischiofemoral impingement refers to the impingement of soft tissues between the ischial tuberosity and lesser trochanter of the femur.  Clinical presentation Patients with ischiofemoral impingement present with chronic pain in the groin and/or buttock, without a history of traumatic injury. Pa...
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a lung disease characterized by an abnormal intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant-derived lipoproteinaceous material. On imaging, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is classically associated with the lung crazy paving pattern on CT, although it is a rare ...

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