Articles

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16,883 results found
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Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconioses are a broad group of lung diseases that are usually categorized as resulting from inhalation of dust particles. They are therefore considered part of the spectrum of inhalational lung diseases, and also occupational lung diseases. Epidemiology Associations Caplan syndrome Vari...
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Ileostomy

An ileostomy is a surgical method in which a loop of the distal small bowel is connected and opened through the outer abdominal wall to artificially create a connection and bypass the large bowel. Pathology Types There are two types of ileostomies: permanent end ileostomy A permanent end il...
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Ileovesicostomy

Ileovesicostomy (also known as "cutaneous ileocystostomy", "ileal chimney", or "bladder chimney") is an uncommon urologic diversion in which a loop of small bowel is anastomosed/augmented to the dome of the bladder. This loop of bowel then exits through a urostomy. The diversion is not continent...
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Superior rectal artery

The superior rectal artery is an artery that supplies blood to the rectum down to the level of the levator ani 2. Summary origin: the terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery is the superior rectal artery course: descends into the pelvic cavity in the sigmoid mesocolon, crossing the ...
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Nephrostomy

Nephrostomy is a common urologic or interventional radiology procedure in which a tube/catheter is introduced into the renal collecting system (usually the renal pelvis). Nephrostomies can either be "open" nephrostomy: after a urological surgical procedure, such as a UPJ stone removal these t...
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Circle of Willis

The Circle of Willis is an arterial polygon (heptagon) formed as the internal carotid and vertebral systems anastomose around the optic chiasm and infundibulum of the pituitary stalk in the suprasellar cistern. This communicating pathway allows equalization of blood-flow between the two sides of...
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Anterior cerebral artery hypoplasia or absence

Anterior cerebral artery hypoplasia or absence is a relatively uncommon anatomical variant involving the first portion of the anterior cerebral artery. The artery may be underdeveloped, as in hypoplasia, or completely absent. Epidemiology Anterior cerebral hypoplasia is estimated to occur in...
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Meniscal tear

Meniscal tears are the failure of the fibrocartilaginous menisci of the knee. There are several types and can occur in an acute or chronic setting. Meniscal tears are best evaluated with MRI. Pathology Acute meniscal tears occur after the rotatory trauma of the knee, whereas chronic degenerati...
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Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is at the mild end of the spectrum of disease caused by pulmonary aspergillosis and can be classified as an eosinophilic lung disease 2-4.  Epidemiology This entity is most commonly encountered in patients with longstanding asthma, and only occasi...
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Asbestosis

Asbestosis is an occupational fibrotic lung disease associated with high levels of asbestos fiber inhalation. Fibrosis is lower lobe predominant and can progress. Even without progression the risk of lung cancer is increased. The presence of pleural plaques is variable 10. Epidemiology Asbest...
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Myositis ossificans

Myositis ossificans is the most common form of heterotopic ossification, usually within large muscles. Its importance stems in large part from its ability to mimic more aggressive pathological processes. Myositis ossificans is one of the skeletal “don’t touch” lesions. Some conditions are relat...
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Stoma

A stoma (plural stomata) is defined as an artificially created connection between two hollow organs or a hollow organ and the skin. A surgical procedure that involves the creation of a stoma carries the suffix "-ostomy". For a discussion of imaging features and potential complications, please r...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (B)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter B and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
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Monochorionic twin pregnancy

A monochorionic twin pregnancy is a type of monozygotic twin pregnancy where the twins share a single chorion. Depending on the sharing of the amnion this can be further divided into two types: monochorionic monoamniotic (MCMA) pregnancy: single amnion monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) pregnancy...
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Alar ligament

The alar ligaments join the lateral margins of the sloping upper posterior margin of the dens of C2 to the lateral margins of the foramen magnum (adjacent to the occipital condyles) and lie on either side of the apical ligament. They may be oblique or vertical and are thickest at the occipital a...
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade destructive metastasizing PEComatous tumor 1 resulting from the proliferation of LAM cells in the lung, kidney and axial lymphatics. The disease is caused by mutations of the TSC2 or TSC1 genes and is more commonly sporadic rather than inherited. Cys...
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Sarcoidosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in ~20% (range 4-38%) of patients with sarcoidosis and include joint involvement, bone lesions, and muscular disease. Approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis have associated arthropathy.  Pathology joints: joint involvement in sarcoido...
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Monozygotic twin pregnancy

A monozygotic (MZ) twin pregnancy results from the division of single zygote following fertilization, resulting in identical genetic material. These twins are therefore always of the same sex. Epidemiology Monozygotic twins account for approximately 30% of all twin pregnancies 1. The estimated...
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Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS), less commonly known as stuck twin syndrome, is a potential complication that can occur in a monochorionic twin pregnancy (either MCDA or MCMA).  Epidemiology This complication can occur in ~10% (range 15-25%) of monochorionic pregnancies, giving an est...
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Occipital condyle fracture

Occipital condylar fractures are uncommon injuries usually resulting from high-energy blunt trauma. They are considered a specific type of basilar skull fracture, and importantly can be seen along with craniocervical dissociation. Treatment of isolated injury is generally conservative, unless t...

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