Articles

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16,881 results found
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Acute hepatitis

Acute hepatitis occurs when the liver suffers an injury resulting in an inflammatory reaction. There are a variety of causal etiologies and imaging findings are often non-specific. Acute hepatitis is primarily a clinical diagnosis and a normal imaging appearance of the liver does not exclude it'...
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Bone lesions with sequestrum

There are several bony lesions that can involve or produce a sequestrum. They include: Common Brodie abscess: osteomyelitis Less common eosinophilic granuloma certain soft tissue tumors (with bony extension)  undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma lymphoma metastasis (especially from brea...
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Shwachman-Diamond syndrome

Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) or Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by 1 : exocrine pancreatic insufficiency metaphyseal chondrodysplasia bone marrow hypoplasia (cyclic neutropenia) Epidemiology Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a ra...
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Lambl’s excrescence

Lambl’s excrescences, also known as valvular strands, are small, filiform, fibrous strands located on cardiac valves. Epidemiology Thought to be present in 70-80% of adults according to pathological studies, but only ~40% on echocardiograph studies 1. When present, multiple Lambl’s excrescence...
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Stress fracture

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in the bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Terminology A pathological fracture, although a type of insufficiency fracture, is a term in general reserved for fractures occurring at the site of ...
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, frequently referred to as pancreatic cancer, makes up the vast majority (~90%) of all pancreatic neoplasms and remains a disease with a very poor prognosis and high morbidity. Epidemiology Pancreatic cancer accounts for 22% of all deaths due to gastrointestina...
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Hepatic metastases

Hepatic metastases are 18-40 times more common than primary liver tumors 6. Ultrasound, CT, and MRI are helpful in detecting hepatic metastases and evaluation across multiple post-contrast CT series, or MRI pulse sequences are necessary.  Epidemiology The demographics of patients with liver me...
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Mediastinal lymph node enlargement

Mediastinal lymph node enlargement can occur from a wide range of pathologies and can be isolated or associated with lung pathology. Historically, a size cut-off of 10 mm short-axis diameter was used.  Terminology The term mediastinal lymphadenopathy implies lymph node disease and is not synon...
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Terminology The term steinstrasse can equally, alb...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal esophagus arising just above the lower esophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid esophageal diverticula but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical presentat...
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Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast tissue is removed through a surgical procedure as opposed to a wide local excision. Sometimes, adjacent structures, such as lymph nodes, are removed to prevent recurrence or metastasis. In some cases, mastectomy is d...
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Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNT) are lesions with distinct cytoarchitectural patterns. They are often considered part of the heterogeneous group of tumors known as long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small "bubbly" indolent subcortica...
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b values

In MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the b value measures the degree of diffusion weighting applied, thereby indicating the amplitude (G), time of applied gradients (δ) and duration between the paired gradients (Δ). It is calculated as: b = γ² G² δ² (Δ−δ/3) Therefore, a larger b valu...
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Achilles tendon tear

Achilles tendon tears are the most common ankle tendon injuries, with microtears to full thickness tendon tears of the Achilles tendon and are most commonly seen secondary to sports-related injury, especially squash and basketball. Epidemiology There is strong male over-representation presumab...
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Temporal bone destructive lesions (differential)

Destructive lesions of the temporal bone (petrous pyramid, middle ear and antrum) have a relatively broad differential including 1: lesions affecting petrous pyramid vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) meningioma glioma neuroma of trigeminal and facial nerve chordoma jugular paragang...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (P)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter P and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), also known as folliculin gene-associated syndrome, is a multi-system disease characterized by: cutaneous manifestations, typically fibrofolliculomas multiple lung cysts and spontaneous pneumothoraces increased risk of renal tumors, typically chromophobe oncocyt...
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Lesser sac

The lesser sac or omental bursa is a potential peritoneal space within the abdomen, part of the peritoneal cavity.  Gross anatomy The lesser sac may be conceptualized as the space posterior to the lesser omentum, between the posterior wall of the stomach and the surface of the peritoneum that ...
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Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia

Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia, or simply bottom of sulcus dysplasia, refers to a highly epileptogenic and localized focal cortical dysplasia that is anatomically restricted to, and maximal at, the bottom of a cortical sulcus. Clinical presentation The typical clinical presentation ...
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Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the widely adopted International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia in 2011 2, which shares many features with the previously described classification systems by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  In 2022, an up...

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