Articles

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16,917 results
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CT renal mass (protocol)

The renal mass CT protocol is a multiphasic contrast-enhanced examination for the assessment of renal masses. It is most often comprised of a non-contrast, nephrogenic phase and excretory phase. However, this article will cover the optional, corticomedullary phase too. NB: This article is inten...
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Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), also known as Forestier disease, is a common condition characterized by bony proliferation at sites of tendinous and ligamentous insertion. It primarily affects the spine of older individuals. On imaging, it manifests as flowing bridging anterior ...
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Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), also known as folliculin gene-associated syndrome, is a multi-system disease characterized by: cutaneous manifestations, typically fibrofolliculomas multiple lung cysts and spontaneous pneumothoraces increased risk of renal tumors in some families, typically ch...
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Zero echo time imaging

Zero echo time (ZTE) imaging is a development in MR technology, to better visualize tissues such as bone with the shortest T2 values. Technique Physical principles In zero echo time imaging, the signal is acquired immediately after applying the radiofrequency pulse resulting in near-zero echo...
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Esophageal intubation

Esophageal intubation refers to the incorrect placement of an endotracheal tube in the esophagus. Within minutes its consequences can be catastrophic with the seriousness of its outcome depending largely on the timeliness of its diagnosis. Epidemiology Accidental esophageal intubation can happ...
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CSF overdrainage

CSF overdrainage, also known as overshunting, is the most common complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunts and other CSF diversion procedures and may result in slit ventricle syndrome, although the two are not synonymous. Clinical presentation Classically, patients present with headaches, al...
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International System of Units

The International System of Units, or the SI units (shortened from the French Système international d'unités) is the globally-adopted system of units of measurement. It is the modern iteration of the metric system. It superseded all prior systems including CGS and MKS, although in certain fields...
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Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is the most common type of head and neck cancer in the Western world 1. Typically it will be further categorized based on the specific anatomical location involved within the oropharynx, as this may affect prognosis and modality of treatment.  Epide...
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Aunt Minnie

The term Aunt Minnie is shorthand for a classic, often pathognomonic, radiological appearance of a diagnosis. Terminology Originally, the term Aunt Minnie referred to a radiological diagnosis made by gestalt 3-5. The Aunt Minnie approach was explained by analogy: if you knew well your Aunt nam...
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MD and DMRD

Doctor of Medicine (MD) which is a 3 years duration degree course and Diploma in Medical Radiodiagnosis (DMRD)- 2 years duration diploma course are among the radiology training courses in India that can be opted through one of the various entrance examinations after graduation: central examinat...
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Normal chest imaging examples

This article lists examples of normal imaging of the chest and surrounding structures, divided by modality. Plain radiographs Adult examples chest radiograph PA adult male example 1 example 2: with inverted windows example 3 PA adult female example 1 example 2 example 3: with labels ...
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Chest radiograph

The chest radiograph (also known as the chest x-ray or CXR) is anecdotally thought to be the most frequently-performed radiological investigation globally although no published data is known to corroborate this. UK government statistical data from the NHS in England and Wales shows that the ches...
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Lobectomy (lung)

A lobectomy (plural: lobectomies) is the complete resection of one lobe of the lung and is the commonest lung surgery performed for bronchogenic carcinoma. Technique A posterolateral thoracotomy is the commonest approach for the resection of lung malignancies. For other surgical approaches for...
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Years criteria for pulmonary embolism

The YEARS criteria is a diagnostic algorithm that determines the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) derived from three items in the Wells score that are most predictive of PE1. Unlike the Wells score, it uses a variable D-dimer threshold based off clinical pre-test probability. The YEARS criteria i...
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Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score

The thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) risk score is a prognostic risk stratification system that categorizes the risk of death and ischemic events in patients with unstable angina / non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and provides a basis for therapeutic decision making. It is thou...
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Intravesical prostatic protrusion

Intravesical prostatic protrusion is an anatomical feature that may be present in some patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) being characterized by the enlargement of the prostate towards the floor of the bladder 1,2. Clinical Presentation Intravesical prostatic protrusion is correl...
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Chronic cholecystitis

Chronic cholecystitis refers to prolonged inflammatory condition that affects the gallbladder. It is almost always seen in the setting of cholelithiasis (95%), caused by intermittent obstruction of the cystic duct or infundibulum, or dysmotility. Clinical presentation Patients may have a histo...
Article

Aortoenteric fistula

Aortoenteric fistulae are pathologic communications between the aorta (or aortoiliac tree) and the gastrointestinal tract and represent an uncommon cause of catastrophic gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Aortic fistulae may be considered primary (associated with a complicated abdominal aortic aneury...
Article

Seminal vesiculitis

Seminal vesiculitis is an uncommon entity characterized by inflammation of the seminal vesicles. It is most commonly infective in etiology and often associated with concurrent infection elsewhere in the male genital tract, forming part of the spectrum of male accessory gland inflammation 4. It i...
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Tattoo sign (mammogram)

The tattoo sign is a feature given to describe dermal calcifications seen on mammography 1. The basis of this sign is that dermal calcifications maintain fixed relationships to one another that are reproducible with similar projections at different times. This is in contrast to intramammary calc...

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