Articles

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16,851 results found
Article

Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). It is rare. Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Etiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumorrhachis): can occur in ...
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Raised intracranial pressure

Raised intracranial pressure is a pathological increase in the intracranial pressure and is a medical emergency.  Clinical presentation The symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure are often non-specific and insidious in onset: headache drowsiness anorexia visual disturbances bl...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas, also known as pneumatosis portalis, is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. p...
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Mendosal suture

The mendosal suture, also known as the accessory occipital suture, is a normal calvarial suture. Gross anatomy The suture extends through the occipital bone, lying superior to the occipitomastoid suture and inferomedial to the lambdoid suture. It closes in utero or in the first few days of lif...
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Occipital bone

The occipital bone, also known as C0, is a trapezoid skull bone that contributes to the posteroinferior part of the cranial vault. It is pierced by the foramen magnum, permitting communication from the cranial cavity to the vertebral canal. Terminology Occiput is a noun referring to the back o...
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Skull

The skull (TA: cranium) consists of 22 bones, excluding the three ossicles in each middle ear. All of the bones of the skull are connected to each other by sutures, a type of fibrous joint, rendering them immobile. These 21 bones form the cranium, and are subdivided into: neurocranium calvari...
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Skull sutures

There are many skull sutures, which is the name given to the fibrous joints formed where the bones of the skull meet. In general, sutures do not fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Skull sutures are fibr...
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Tunica albuginea cyst

Tunica albuginea cysts are the most common extratesticular benign scrotal mass lesion. They are a type of scrotal tunica cyst. Epidemiology The mean age at presentation of tunica albuginea cysts is 40 years, although they may be seen in the 5th and 6th decades. Clinical presentation Tunica a...
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Pubis

The pubis, together with the ilium and ischium, make up the innominate bone of the pelvis. These are individual bones in the young and unite to form one bone in adults, the principal union forming the fused acetabulum. The pubis is the ventral part of the innominate bone and forms a median cart...
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Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease

Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GL-ILD) describes non-infectious diffuse lung disease complications that have been reported to traditionally develop in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Epidemiology Associations Although it is almost always associated...
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Gracilis muscle

The gracilis muscle is the most superficial muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh and descends almost vertically down the medial side of the thigh. Summary origin: a line on the external surfaces of the body of the pubis, inferior pubic ramus, and the ramus of the ischium insertion: a...
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Inferior olivary nucleus

The inferior olivary nuclei (or ION) are two C-shaped nuclei located within the medulla oblongata, implicated in motor coordination. Gross anatomy The inferior olivary nuclei are located in the superior medulla, just below the pons. They are an irregular mass of crenated C-shaped grey matter, ...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: LORA CHONG AP OF DR GHLN CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics LORA CHONG L: leukemia, lead poisoning O: osteopetrosis, osteochondromatosis R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets A: achondropla...
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Renal angiomyolipoma

Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are a type of benign renal neoplasm encountered both sporadically and as part of a phakomatosis, most commonly tuberous sclerosis. They are considered one of a number of tumors with perivascular epithelioid cellular differentiation (PEComas) and are composed of vascul...
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Segond fracture

Segond fracture is an avulsion fracture of the knee that involves the lateral aspect of the tibial plateau and is very frequently (~75% of cases) associated with disruption of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). On the frontal knee radiograph, it may be referred to as the lateral capsular sign...
Article

Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27-altered

Diffuse midline glioma, H3 K27-altered is a specific entity that represents the majority of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas, although identical tumors are also found elsewhere in the midline (e.g. brainstem, spinal cord and thalamus) 1. They are aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis and are ...
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Diffuse brainstem glioma (historical)

Diffuse brainstem gliomas or diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas was a term used to describe infiltrating astrocytomas arising in the brainstem, usually in children. It is no longer recognized as a distinct entity, removed from the 2016 update to the WHO classification of CNS tumors replaced by a ...
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Dual energy CT

Dual energy CT, also known as spectral CT, is a computed tomography technique that uses two separate x-ray photon energy spectra, allowing the interrogation of materials that have different attenuation properties at different energies. Technique Whereas conventional single-energy CT produces a...
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T1 mapping - myocardium

T1 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T1 time of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for myocardial tissue characterization 1-6 and has been investigated for other tissues 5. Terminology Native T1 is referred t...
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T2 mapping - myocardium

T2 mapping is a magnetic resonance imaging technique used to calculate the T2 times of a certain tissue and display them voxel-vice on a parametric map. It has been used for tissue characterization of the myocardium 1-5 and has been investigated for cartilage 6,7 and other tissues 4. T2 mapping...

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