Articles

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16,913 results
Article

Coracoid process fracture

Coracoid process fractures are an uncommon type of scapular fracture. They do not often occur in isolation and are often associated with acromial, clavicular, or other scapular fractures, as well as glenohumeral dislocation or acromioclavicular joint injury. Epidemiology Coracoid fractures rep...
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Mandible

The mandible is the single midline bone of the lower jaw. It consists of a curved, horizontal portion, the body, and two perpendicular portions, the rami, which unite with the ends of the body nearly at right angles (angle of the jaw). It articulates with both temporal bones at the mandibular fo...
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O'Driscoll classification of coronoid process fractures

The O'Driscoll classification system of coronoid process fractures distinguishes three types of coronoid process fractures of the ulna, and this classification system is useful when assessing further treatment options 1-4. type I: transverse coronoid tip fractures, which affect one-third of the...
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Coronoid process fracture

Fractures of the coronoid process of the ulna are uncommon and often occur in association with elbow dislocation.  Pathology Mechanism Fracture of the coronoid process is thought to result from elbow hyperextension with either avulsion of the brachialis tendon insertion or shearing off by the...
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Small round blue cell tumors (mnemonic)

Small round blue cell tumors can be remembered using the mnemonic: MR BLUE Mnemonic This mnemonic is by no means comprehensive, however contains some of the most common small round blue cell tumors. M: Melanoma R: Rhabdomyosarcoma B: Blastomas (esthesioneuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, nephr...
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Extrapyramidal system

The extrapyramidal system is the part of the motor system involved in modulation and regulation of movement. As its name suggests, it is distinct from the motor fibers that are relayed through the pyramids of the medulla oblongata (corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts). It is composed of nerv...
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Elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view is part of the two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. It is deceptively one of the more technically demanding projections in radiography 1-3. The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna...
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Elbow

The elbow is a complex synovial joint formed by the articulations of the humerus, the radius, and the ulna.  Gross anatomy Articulations The elbow joint is made up of three articulations 2,3: radiohumeral: capitellum of the humerus with the radial head ulnohumeral: trochlea of the humerus w...
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Elbow radiograph (summary approach)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Elbow radiographs are common plain films that are obtained frequently in the emergency department. Summary approach alignment anterior humeral line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the mi...
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Adult elbow radiograph (an approach)

Systematic review Whenever you look at an adult elbow x-ray, review: alignment fat pads for effusion bony cortex Alignment Check the anterior humeral line: drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle 1/3 of the capitellum if it does not, think: distal hume...
Article

Elbow series

The elbow series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an AP and lateral projection, although other non-standard, modified projections are utilized for specific indications. Indications Elbow x-rays are indicate...
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Elbow radiograph (an approach)

Elbow radiographs are common and oftentimes difficult to interpret without a solid systematic search strategy.  Systematic review Choosing a search strategy and utilizing it consistently is a helpful method to overcome common errors seen in diagnostic radiology. The order in which you interpre...
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Thoracic spine series

The thoracic spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions. Radiographs of the thoracic spine are consi...
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Cervical spine series

The cervical spine series is a set of radiographs taken to investigate the bony structures of the cervical spine, albeit commonly replaced by the CT, the cervical spine series is an essential trauma radiograph for all radiographers to understand. Indications Cervical spine radiographs are indi...
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Lumbar spine series

The lumbar spine series is comprised of two standard projections along with a range of additional projections depending on clinical indications. The series is often utilized in the context of trauma, postoperative imaging and for chronic conditions such as ankylosing spondylosis. Lumbar spine r...
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Incomplete cord syndromes

Incomplete cord syndromes encompass a variety of patterns of cross-sectional partial disruption of the spinal cord. Due to the spatial segregation of various ascending and descending tracts within the cord, regional dysfunction results in predictable and distinct clinical patterns of deficit. As...
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Penumbra sign (intraosseous abscess)

In musculoskeletal radiology, the penumbra sign represents a rim of vascularized granulation tissue surrounding an intraosseous abscess cavity, with a higher T1 signal intensity than the cavity itself 1. This finding is a specific (~98%) but relatively insensitive (~55%) sign to distinguish suba...
Article

Charcot joint

Charcot joint, also known as a neuropathic joint or Charcot (neuro/osteo)arthropathy, refers to a progressive degenerative/destructive joint disorder in patients with abnormal pain sensation and proprioception. Epidemiology In modern Western societies by far the most common cause of Charcot jo...
Article

Shoulder series

The shoulder series is fundamentally composed of two orthogonal views of the glenohumeral joint including the entire scapula. The extension of the shoulder series depends on the radiography department protocols and the clinical indications for imaging. Indications Shoulder radiographs are perf...
Article

Hip series

The hip series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiograph of the hip joint. The series is requested for a myriad of reasons from trauma to atraumatic hip pain. Indications Hip radiographs are performed for a variety of indications including 1-3:  trauma hip pain abnormal...

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