Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,794 results found
Article

Middle ear ossicles

There are three tiny articulating bones in the middle ear known as ossicles (from lateral to medial): malleus incus stapes Their role is to mechanically amplify the vibrations of the tympanic membrane and transmit them to the cochlea where they can be interpreted as sound. They are located i...
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Floating balls sign

The floating balls sign refers to the appearance of multiple mobile globules/spherules of solid, usually fatty, tissue within an adnexal cyst. It is pathognomonic for ovarian mature cystic teratoma 1,2.  Terminology Alternative names include the meatballs 3, truffle sign 4, and boba sign 13. ...
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Placental evaluation with MRI

Placental evaluation with MRI is a problem-solving technique that can be used if ultrasound evaluation is insufficient or confusing. Even if the placenta is not the main point of evaluation, it is useful to understand the appearance of the placenta on obstetric imaging for other causes. Techniq...
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Ultrasound-guided spinal anesthesia

With the growing incidence of obesity in the western world, ultrasound-guided anesthesia is becoming more common.  Spinal anesthesia is traditionally administered by identifying relevant surface anatomy and imaging is rarely used for pre-procedural identification of structures. Ultrasound-guide...
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Bell palsy

Bell palsy, also known as idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis, is characterized by rapid onset facial nerve paralysis, often with resolution in 6-8 weeks, without an identifiable etiology. As there are numerous causes of facial nerve palsy, many acute in onset, it is currently a diagnosis of ...
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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a group of cardiac diagnoses along a spectrum of severity due to the interruption of coronary blood flow to the myocardium, which in decreasing severity are: ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) unstable an...
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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also referred to as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a hematological malignancy characterized by the abnormal clonal proliferation of immature myeloid precursors (myeloblasts) or poorly differentiated cells of the hematopoietic system. It primary infiltrates the bone ...
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Acromioclavicular joint injury

Acromioclavicular joint injuries, commonly shortened to ACJ injuries, are characterized by damage to the acromioclavicular joint and surrounding structures. Almost invariably traumatic in etiology, they range in severity from a mild sprain to complete disruption. Epidemiology Acromioclavicular...
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Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome (BWG), is a rare congenital coronary artery anomaly and is considered one of the most severe of such anomalies. There are two forms, based on the onset of the disease, each of which has...
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MRI safety

MRI scanners, although free from potentially cancer-inducing ionizing radiation found in plain radiography and CT, have a host of safety issues which must be taken very seriously. MRI safety can be divided into: main magnetic field varying magnetic (gradient) fields radiofrequency Main magne...
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Epicardial pacing wires

Epicardial pacing wires or temporary pacing wires (TPW) allow rapid commencement of atrial and/or ventricular pacing in the event of a perioperative cardiac arrhythmia that has the potential to cause significant hemodynamic compromise. They are usually inserted during open heart surgery, and es...
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Intraventricular neoplasms and lesions

Intraventricular neoplasms are rare and arise from periventricular structures such as the walls of the ventricular system, the septum pellucidum and the choroid plexus. Many tumor types arise from or can bulge into the ventricular system, although there are certain lesions that are relatively re...
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Intracranial tumors with calcification

A variety of intracranial tumors exhibit different forms of calcification. Some lesions commonly show calcification while in some tumors, calcification is seen only in few number of cases. In this article these tumors are classified on the basis of frequency of calcification. Commonly calcified...
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Central neurocytoma

Central neurocytomas are WHO grade 2 neuroepithelial intraventricular tumors with fairly characteristic imaging features, appearing as heterogeneous masses of variable size and enhancement within the lateral ventricle, typically attached to the septum pellucidum. They are typically seen in young...
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Vagus nerve

The vagus nerve (TA: nervus vagus or nervus cranialis X), the tenth cranial nerve (CN X), exits the skull through the jugular foramen, travels down the neck within the carotid sheath, over the pericardium and into the abdomen, giving off numerous branches. It is the longest cranial nerve. It is...
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Pharyngobasilar fascia

The pharyngobasilar fascia is the part of the middle layer of deep cervical fascia that attaches the pharynx to the skull base. It originates between the mucosal and muscular layers of the pharynx and is the primary component of the pharyngeal wall above the level of the superior pharyngeal cons...
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Anal sphincter injury

Anal sphincter injury is a form of perineal trauma that can involve internal or external anal sphincters and may extend to the anorectal mucosa in severe cases. This article is focusing on the most common type of anal sphincter injury that is associated with vaginal delivery, and represents thi...
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Nasopharynx

The nasopharynx (plural: nasopharynges or nasopharynxes) forms the superior-most part of the pharynx, in continuity with the inferior oropharynx, and the posterior continuation of the anterior nasal cavity. It also forms part of the upper respiratory tract. Gross anatomy Boundaries anteriorly...
Article

Stylopharyngeus muscle

The stylopharyngeus muscle is in the head and neck region, and one of the inner longitudinal muscles of the pharynx. Summary origin: styloid process of the temporal bone insertion: thyroid cartilage innervation: glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) action: elevates the larynx and pharynx; swallow...
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Middle layer of the deep cervical fascia

The middle layer of the deep cervical fascia is the one of the three layers of the deep cervical fascia that most closely surrounds the visceral organs. This layer consists anteriorly of the strap muscle fascia (comprised of the sterno-omohyoid and sternothyroid-thyrohyoid layers) and posteriorl...

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