Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,912 results
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Foot radiograph (an approach)

Foot radiographs are commonly performed in Emergency departments, usually after sport-related trauma and often with a clinical request that states lateral border pain. Remember to check the whole film, though. Often, a foot x-ray is also requested for the investigation of osteomyelitis, arthriti...
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Hand series

The hand series consists of posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projections. Although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints, the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Indications Hand x-rays ar...
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Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine anteroposterior or posteroanterior view images the lumbar spine in its anatomical position. The lumbar spine generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postop...
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Hilton's law

Hilton's law states that a joint tends to be innervated by a branch of a motor nerve which also supplies a muscle extending and acting across the joint. Another branch of the nerve often supplies the overlying skin. History and etymology The term is named after British surgeon John Hilton (180...
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Leukemia (testicular manifestations)

Leukemia testicular manifestations, or testicular leukemia, can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testis, and therefore the testis can act as a sanctuary for leukemic cells. Clinical presentation Patients typical...
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Leukemia (musculoskeletal involvement)

Musculoskeletal involvement of leukemia is not always apparent on imaging, although the disease is per se characterized by leukemic infiltration of bone marrow.   Leukemia is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the overproduction of immature (blasts) or abnormally differentiated cells of ...
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Modified Dallas discographic classification of intervertebral disc radial tears

The modified Dallas classification describes the discography appearance of radial annular tears of the intervertebral disc. Classification grade 0: contrast remains in the nucleus pulposus grade 1: contrast leaks into the inner 1/3 of the annulus fibrosus grade 2: contrast leaks into the mid...
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Achondroplasia (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the common features of achondroplasia is: ACHONDROPLaSIA F Mnemonic A: autosomal dominant inheritance, alteration (mutation) of FGFR3 C: champagne glass pelvis, chevron sign H: hand abnormalities (trident hand, brachydactyly) O: out knees, bOwing of legs (genu varum)...
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Appendiceal intussusception

Appendiceal intussusception happens when the appendix segment is pulled into itself or into the cecum. This condition can mimic various chronic and acute abdominal conditions. It is an important entity to recognize since it could be mistaken for a cecal mass. Epidemiology Appendiceal intussusc...
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Acute appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It is a very common condition in general radiology practice and is one of the main reasons for abdominal surgery in young patients. CT is the most sensitive modality to detect appendicitis. Terminology Acute appendicitis (p...
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Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit

Subperiosteal abscess of the orbit occurs as a complication of adjacent infection such as orbital cellulitis or acute sinusitis. Clinical presentation Patients can present with pain, visual disturbance, proptosis and/or chemosis. Pathology Bacteria can extend via neurovascular foramina or bo...
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Ectopic meningioma

An ectopic meningioma (or primary ectopic meningioma) refers to rare situations where a meningioma arises outside the dura without any connection to the dura, distinguishing it from meningiomas with extracranial or extraspinal growth. Clinical presentation Ectopic meningiomas can occur at vari...
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Editorial team

Radiopaedia's editorial team comprises a number of contributors, many of whom have been shaping the site for years. They have many roles, but primarily they are responsible for the review and moderation of new content, reaching out to new contributors and generally ensuring that the Radiopaedia ...
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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to recall some of the important features of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is: COMBAT Mnemonic C: confusion, confabulatory amnesia O: ophthalmoplegia M: mamillary bodies B: B1 (vitamin), bariatric surgery A: alcoholics T: thalami, tectal plate, third ventricle
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Pelvic radiograph (an approach)

Pelvic radiographs are a mainstay radiographic examination in trauma imaging. The standard radiographic exam is an AP pelvis, however more specialized projections can be requested to answer specific clinical questions. For a list of the specialized views see the pelvis series article. Systemati...
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Gibbs and truncation artifacts

Gibbs artifact, also known as truncation artifact or ringing artifact, is a type of MRI artifact. It refers to a series of lines in the MR image parallel to abrupt and intense changes in the object at this location, such as the CSF-spinal cord and the skull-brain interface. The MR image is reco...
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Endometrial carcinoma (staging)

Endometrial carcinoma staging allows appropriate treatment options to be considered and enables greater prognostic accuracy for endometrial carcinoma.  Staging Staging can be based on the TNM or FIGO system.  MR imaging is the modality of choice for staging with CT having relatively low speci...
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Endometrial carcinoma protocol (MRI)

A dedicated MRI protocol is crucial for accurate MRI evaluation of endometrial carcinomas. The endometrial carcinoma protocol is optimally performed after 3 hours of fasting to reduce bowel peristalsis and following administration of an antiperistaltic agent unless contraindicated. Supine posi...
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Polycystic ovaries

Polycystic ovaries (PCO) or polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is an imaging descriptor of a particular type of change in ovarian morphology. A proportion of women with polycystic ovaries will have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which in turn requires additional clinical, as well as bioch...
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Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), also known as hyperandrogenic anovulation, is a chronic anovulation syndrome associated with androgen excess.  The Rotterdam criteria is used to make the diagnosis of PCOS and require any two of the following three criteria for the diagnosis, as well as the e...

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