Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,914 results
Article

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNBD) is a preinvasive biliary tree neoplasm considered to be a precursor of cholangiocarcinoma.  Terminology Biliary papillary adenoma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma of the biliary tract were terms used to refer to localized low-grade an...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (I)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter I and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (M)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter M and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
Article

Cystic adenomyosis

Cystic adenomyosis is a rare variant of adenomyosis and is believed to be the result of repeated focal hemorrhages resulting in cystic spaces filled with altered blood products. Radiographic features MRI MRI is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for this diagnosis and will demon...
Article

Bouchard node

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the proximal interphalangeal joints and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associated wi...
Article

Erosive osteoarthritis

Erosive (inflammatory) osteoarthritis is a form of hand osteoarthritis (OA) where, as the name implies, there is an additional erosive/inflammatory component. Epidemiology There is marked female predilection (F:M ~12:1), typically presenting in the postmenopausal patient. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Heberden node

Heberden nodes are a clinical examination sign related to the hands, most commonly found at the dorsolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and are a moderate-to-strong marker of osteoarthritis 1,2.   Previously, Heberden nodes and DIP osteophytes were thought to be synonymou...
Article

Popliteal artery

The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery, at the point where it exits the adductor canal at the adductor hiatus, and passes into the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. Summary origin: continuation of the superficial femor...
Article

Line focus principle

The line focus principle in radiography explains the relationship between the actual focal spot on the anode surface and the effective focal spot size. Basic concept The focal spot is the area of the target upon which the electron beam strikes. The energy of the electrons in the electron beam ...
Article

Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019)

The Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019), or usually simply Bosniak classification v2019, is an update of the Bosniak criteria published in 2005. Usage The Bosniak classification version referred to international guidelines is variable, with the 2022 European and Canad...
Article

Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in...
Article

Neurocysticercosis

Neurocysticercosis is caused by the CNS infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which is endemic in most low-income countries where pigs are raised. This form of cysticercosis is a relevant cause of seizures in endemic areas. Epidemiology The disease is endemic in Central and South Ame...
Article

Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity

Avulsion fractures of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity or styloid process are one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and account for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Terminology The terms ‘tuberosity’ and ‘styloid process’ are synonyms and refer to the portion of th...
Article

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastomas are the most common intraocular neoplasm found in childhood and with modern treatment modalities, are, in most cases, curable. On imaging, they are generally characterized by a heterogeneous retinal mass with calcifications, necrotic components and increased vascularization on D...
Article

Epilepsy protocol (MRI)

MRI protocol for epilepsy is a set of MRI sequences aimed at improving sensitivity and specificity in identifying possible structural abnormalities that underlie epilepsy (e.g. mesial temporal sclerosis and malformation of cortical development).  Perhaps more than most other MRI protocols, stud...
Article

Cauda equina syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is considered an incomplete cord syndrome, even though it occurs below the conus. Cauda equina syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms and signs that result from severe compression of the descending lumbar and sacral nerve roots. It is most commonly caused by an a...
Article

Medical abbreviations and acronyms (P)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter P and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
Article

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by widespread discontinuous gastrointestinal tract inflammation. The terminal ileum and proximal colon are most often affected. Extraintestinal disease is common. Epidemiology The diagn...
Article

Pyloric stenosis

Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) refers to the idiopathic thickening of gastric py­loric musculature which then results in progressive gastric outlet obstruction. Epidemiology Pyloric stenosis is relatively common, with an incidence of approximately 2-5 per 1000 births, and a male predilect...
Article

Gastroduodenal artery

The gastroduodenal artery (GDA) is a terminal branch of the common hepatic artery that mainly supplies the pylorus of the stomach, proximal duodenum, and the head of the pancreas. Due to its proximity to the posterior wall of the first part of the duodenum, the gastroduodenal artery is one of th...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.