Paraumbilical hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are a type of midline ventral abdominal hernia.
Paraumbilical hernias occur near the umbilicus when abdominal contents protrude through a defect in the linea alba and can be quite large. They are usually related to rectus abdominis ...
Hepatic abscesses, like abscesses elsewhere, are localized collections of necrotic inflammatory tissue caused by bacterial, parasitic, or fungal agents.
The frequency of individual infective agents as causes of liver abscesses are intimately linked to the demographics of the affe...
Umbilical venous catheters (UVCs) are commonly used in neonates for vascular access and should be carefully assessed for position on all neonatal films.
An umbilical venous catheter generally passes directly superiorly and remains relatively anterior in the abdomen. It passes through...
Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), often incorrectly tautologically termed PICC lines, are a type of central venous catheter predominantly used amongst oncology patients and those with chronic diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis).
They offer the ability to have long-term central venous...
Renal pseudotumors simulate a tumor on imaging but are composed of non-neoplastic tissue.
There are many examples 1-3:
prominent column of Bertin
persistent fetal lobulation
cross-fused renal ectopia
renal hilar lip...
The technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (usually shortened to MR spectroscopy or MRS) allows tissue to be interrogated for the presence and concentration of various metabolites. Grossman and Yousem said "If you need this to help you, go back to page 1; everything except Canavan (disease...
Developmental anomalies of the kidneys and ureters are numerous and not only potentially render image interpretation confusing but also, in many instances, make the kidneys more prone to pathology:
horseshoe kidney: most common
cross fused ...
Dromedary humps are prominent focal bulges on the lateral border of the left kidney. They are normal variants of the renal contour, caused by the splenic impression onto the superolateral left kidney.
Dromedary humps are important because they may mimic a renal mass, and as such is considered a...
Umbilical hernias (alternative plural: herniae) are the most common ventral abdominal wall hernia and occur in the midline through the umbilicus.
Ten times more common in females 2 and represent ~5% of all abdominal hernias 4.
Umbilical hernias may present ...
Connective tissue disease-interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD) has various manifestations however the most frequent patterns seen on CT are NSIP or UIP. CTD-ILD should be suspected in younger patients especially women and never-smokers and particulary if there is involvement of pleura, airways or...
Anterior suprapatellar (quadriceps) fat pad impingement syndrome is a controversial cause of anterior knee pain although anterior suprapatellar fat pad edema may often, and possibly more commonly, be incidental or considered an anatomical variant 1,2,11.
Ortner syndrome, also known as cardiovocal syndrome, is characterized by hoarse voice resulting from left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy secondary to a cardiovascular disorder.
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in this condition is due to traction or compression of the nerve betw...
Hematocolpos is a term given to a blood-filled dilated vagina due to menstrual blood in the setting of an anatomical obstruction, usually an imperforate hymen. When there is concurrent uterine distention, the term hematometrocolpos is used.
Patients may present with ameno...
Vaginal stenosis refers to a narrowing of the vagina, it can be congenital or acquired.
painful pelvic examination
Acquired causes include:
scarring from prior pelvic irradiation - brach...
Gallstone ileus is an uncommon cause of mechanical small bowel obstruction. It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis 7 and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocecal valve.
Buphthalmos is a descriptive term which simply means an enlarged eyeball or ocular globe due to increased intraocular pressure (glaucoma), without deformation or intrinsic mass lesion.
It typically manifests in infants and young children.
In the majority of cases it in...
Intracranial arterial fenestration refers to segmental duplication of the intracranial arteries. They may be contrasted to arterial duplication, which consists of two distinct vessels with separate origins and no downstream convergence. They are rare anomalies, felt to result from incomplete fus...
McGrigor-Campbell lines are imaginary lines traced across the face on an occipitomental (Waters) view skull radiograph to assess for fractures of the middle third (especially) of the face 3:
first line is traced from one zygomaticofrontal suture to another, across the superior edge of the orbit...
Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a subset of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage when bleeding is diffuse and directly into the alveolar spaces. It can occur in a vast number of clinical situations and can be life-threatening.
Blood tends to fill alveolar spaces at multiple sites.
11-13 week antenatal (nuchal translucency) scan is considered a routine investigation advised for fetal well-being as well as for early screening in pregnancy (see antenatal screening).
It includes multiple components and is highly dependent on the operator. Traditionally three factors are used...