Articles

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16,879 results found
Article

Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis (plural: osteonecroses) is a generic term referring to the ischemic death of the constituents of bone. It has a wide variety of causes and can affect nearly any bone in the body. Most sites of involvement have an eponym associated with osteonecrosis of that area (see list below), a...
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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the largest cardiac venous structure. It returns the majority of the blood supply for the left ventricle to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains int...
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Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNT) are lesions with distinct cytoarchitectural patterns. They are often considered part of the heterogeneous group of tumors known as long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small "bubbly" indolent subcortica...
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Right-sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterized by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
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Floating knee

Floating knees occur when there are ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular i...
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Lacunar stroke syndrome

Lacunar stroke syndrome is a description of the clinical syndrome that results from a lacunar infarct.  Each of the five classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating manner (e.g. the capsular warning syndr...
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Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis, commonly known as pars interarticularis defect or pars defect, is a defect in the pars interarticularis, the portion of the vertebral neural arch that connects the superior and inferior articular facets. Epidemiology Spondylolysis is present in ~5% of the population 2 and higher...
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Sprengel deformity

Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of the scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. An initial diagnosis can often be made on radiographs, but CT or MRI is often necessary to evaluate the details of the abnormality. Epidemio...
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AO/OTA classification of distal femur fractures

The AO/OTA classification of distal femoral fractures is a commonly used fracture classification system in orthopedic trauma. Classification In the AO/OTA classification system, the distal femur system's prefix is 33, indicating the femur (3) and the distal portion of the femur (3) 1. Each lo...
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm refers to a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary arteries. Pathology A pseudoaneurysm results from a tear or disruption of all three layers of the vessel wall. Extravasated blood is contained by compressed extravascular tissue or a clot, which makes up the ...
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Compressive myelopathy

Compressive myelopathy refers to neurological deficits that result from compression of the spinal cord. It most commonly occurs in the cervical spinal cord.  Pathology Any cause of spinal canal stenosis including cervical spondylosis (endplate changes, disc herniation, osteophytes, facet joint...
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Owl-eyes sign (spinal cord)

The owl-eyes sign, also known as snake-eyes sign or fried-eggs sign, represents bilaterally symmetric circular to ovoid foci of high T2-weighted signals in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is seen on axial MR imaging. The sagittal corollary is a "pencil-like" vertical linear high T...
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Winquist and Hansen classification of femoral shaft fractures

The Winquist and Hansen classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and stability. Usage The Winquist system is commonly used along with the AO/OTA classification of femoral diaphyseal fractures 4. This classification was originally used to assist (along with ot...
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AO/OTA classification of proximal tibial fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the most frequently used systems for classifying proximal tibial fractures or proximal tibial end segment fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: extraartic...
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Ureteral stricture

Ureteral or ureteric strictures are narrowing of the ureter that result in functional obstruction. They can occur anywhere along the ureter but are commonly seen at the ureteropelvic junction. Epidemiology The incidence of post-ureteroscopy strictures has increased from 0.5 to 1.4% 1,2. Studie...
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Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast tissue is removed through a surgical procedure as opposed to a wide local excision. Sometimes, adjacent structures, such as lymph nodes, are removed to prevent recurrence or metastasis. In some cases, mastectomy is d...
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Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal arthritis

Scaphotrapeziotrapezoidal (STT) or triscaphe joint arthritis is common, occurring on ~9% (range 2-16%) of wrist radiographs 3,4. It is typically degenerative (i.e. osteoarthritis) affecting the triscaphe articulation and presents with radial-sided wrist or base of thumb pain in patients over 50 ...
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Pulmonary artery atresia

Pulmonary artery atresia (or sometimes known as pulmonary atresia) is a congenital cardiovascular anomaly in which there is complete disruption between the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and the pulmonary trunk. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is 1 in 10,000 births. Pathology Th...
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Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumor

Superficial CD34-positive fibroblastic tumors (SCPFT) or PRDM10-rearranged soft tissue tumors are rare low-grade mesenchymal neoplasms of the dermis and subcutis 1-3 that have been just added to the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020 2,3. Epidemiology Superficial CD34-positive fi...
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Optic pathway glioma

Optic pathway gliomas are relatively uncommon tumors, with a variable clinical course and usually seen in the setting of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1). Histologically the majority are pilocytic astrocytomas. They are characterized by imaging by an enlarged optic nerve seen either on CT or MRI....

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