Articles

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16,852 results found
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Emerging medical imaging technologies

This article is a summary of emerging medical imaging technologies in development or in the early phase of clinical adoption. The methods are listed by modality.  Radiography dark-field radiography x-ray phase-contrast imaging CT dark-field CT deep-learning reconstruction photon counting ...
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Parathyroid adenoma

Parathyroid adenomas are benign tumors of the parathyroid glands and are the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Epidemiology Associations There is an association with multiple endocrine neoplasia types I (MEN1) and IV (MEN4). Clinical presentation Patients typically present w...
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Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon primary tumor of the peritoneal lining. It shares epidemiological and pathological features with - but is less common than - its pleural counterpart, which is described in detail in the general article on mesothelioma. Other abdominal subtypes (al...
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Inflammation

Inflammation is a response to noxious stimuli that can be acute or chronic. The cardinal signs of inflammation include: heat (calor) redness (rubor) swelling (tumor) pain (dolor) loss of tissue function (functio laesa) Subtypes Acute Inflammation Acute inflammation occurs within the fir...
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Pseudo-TORCH syndrome

Pseudo-TORCH syndrome is a term used to denote cases that clinically resemble congenital infection (see congenital TORCH infections) but where no organisms or serological, microbiological or immunological evidence of infection can be identified 1. It is believed that pseudo-TORCH syndrome is act...
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Aicardi-Goutières syndrome

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disease which usually presents in early infancy as a systemic and central nervous system inflammatory syndrome characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, vasculopathy and encephalopathy. Many of the features are similar to congenital TO...
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Acute necrotizing encephalopathy

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy, also referred as acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC), is a rare type of encephalopathy characterized by multiple bilateral brain lesions, mainly involving the thalami, but also the putamina, internal and external capsules, cerebellar white matte...
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Tracheomalacia (differential)

A dilated trachea has numerous causes, and in almost all cases represents tracheomalacia (increased size and increased compliance). As is almost always the case, various diameters have been used. Typical figures include >26 mm in men, >23 mm in women or >3 cm for both genders. Although many of...
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Cardiac strain imaging

Strain imaging is a cardiac imaging technique that detects ventricular deformation patterns and functional abnormalities before they become obvious as regional wall motion abnormalities on conventional cine imaging or echo. It has become more popular lately due to several technological improveme...
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Retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein

The retro-aortic left brachiocephalic vein is a rare vascular variant where the left brachiocephalic vein passes more inferiorly through the superior mediastinum, coursing inferior to the aortic arch and posterior to the ascending aorta to join the right brachiocepahilc vein forming the superior...
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Intersublobar septum

The intersublobar septum is a commonly occurring thin strand of intrapulmonary loose connective tissue that typically connects inferior pulmonary vein branches to the pulmonary ligament and may extend inferiorly to the diaphragm. The septum is apparent in about 78% of CT scans 1.
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Peroneal magnus artery

The peroneal magnus artery or peronea arteria magna (PAM) is a congenital variant of the arterial supply of the leg, where both the anterior and posterior tibial arteries are hypoplastic and a large dominant peroneal artery supplies the whole leg and foot. It is seen in up to 5% of people 1,3. ...
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Cloverleaf sign (deep infiltrating endometriosis)

The cloverleaf sign is an MRI sign of deep infiltrating endometriosis described in one case series 1. It is detectable on T2W sequences in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes when at least three organs (uterus, ovaries, rectum, bowel loops, etc.) are brought closer by constrictive adhesions and ...
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Hepatic neuroendocrine tumor

Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids) is an extremely rare type of neuroendocrine tumor, with somewhere between 60-90 cases reported in the literature. Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver is far more common. Clinical presentation Some patie...
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Jarcho-Levin syndrome

Jarcho-Levin syndrome, or spondylothoracic dysostosis, is a rare genetic disorder. Terminology Previously, spondylocostal dysostosis was considered part of the Jarcho-Levin syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology The exact prevalence of this disease is unknown. Clinical presentation It is primaril...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: LORA CHONG AP OF DR GHLN CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics LORA CHONG L: leukemia, lead poisoning O: osteopetrosis, osteochondromatosis R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets A: achondropla...
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Dark-field radiography

Dark-field radiography is an emerging medical imaging technology. While conventional x-ray imaging is based on the differential attenuation of various organs and tissues, dark-field radiography utilizes ultra-small angle x-ray scattering similar to dark-field computed tomography. Clinical appli...
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Whirlpool sign (testicular torsion)

The whirlpool sign of the spermatic cord is a direct sign of testicular torsion, both complete and incomplete (i.e. <360°). It is considered to be the most specific and sensitive sign for testicular torsion. Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (dis...
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Imaging technology article structure

Articles about imaging technology require a different structure than articles about disease. Articles with this structure are generally assigned to the imaging technology section and may also be assigned to a specific system if appropriate. ======================================================...
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Elastography

Elastography is a newer technique that exploits the fact that a pathological process alters the elastic properties of the involved tissue. This change in elasticity is detected and imaged using elastography. Radiographic technique Sono-elastography Sono-elastography is the term used when ultr...

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