Articles

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16,910 results found
Article

Tornwaldt cyst

Tornwaldt cysts (also spelled as Thornwaldt cyst or Thornwald cyst) are common incidental benign midline nasopharyngeal mucosal cysts. A symptomatic cyst is also called Tornwaldt disease 7,8. Epidemiology Tornwaldt cysts are developmental and usually asymptomatic. In most cases they are found ...
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Choroidal osteoma

Choroidal osteomas are rare benign calcific masses of the globe.  Epidemiology Choroidal osteomas are typically found in young Caucasian women 1. A number of familial cases have been reported 3.  Clinical presentation These lesions are usually unilateral (75%), and result in painless and gra...
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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that involves the cavernous sinus and orbital apex and is essentially a clinical diagnosis of exclusion. Epidemiology The estimated incidence of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is 1 per 1,000,000 person-years with an average age of onset at 41 ...
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Medial canal fibrosis

Medial canal fibrosis is characterized by fibrous tissue formation in the medial part of the bony external auditory canal. Clinical presentation  Patients can present with conductive hearing loss, otorrhea and/or a history of chronic otitis. Radiographic features Early stage a thickened tym...
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Peroneal intraneural ganglion cyst

Peroneal intraneural ganglion cysts are an uncommon cause of a cystic lesion around the knee. Intraneural ganglion cysts are benign mucinous lesions have been reported in many peripheral nerves, and not uncommonly form in the common peroneal nerve.  Clinical presentation These lesions can pres...
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Symphalangism

Symphalangism refers to ankylosis or synostosis or absence of the interphalangeal joints (i.e. fusion of the phalanges) in either the toes or the fingers. Less commonly, the metacarpophalangeal joints may be affected. Epidemiology One study reports symphalangism of the fifth toe in ~55% (range...
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Pericarditis

Pericarditis is defined as inflammation of the pericardium. It is normally found in association with cardiac, thoracic or wider systemic pathology and it is unusual to manifest on its own. Epidemiology Pericarditis is the most common pericardial disease worldwide and accounts for about 0.1-0.2...
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Kaposi sarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-to-intermediate grade mesenchymal tumor that involves the lymphovascular system. The tumor can involve the pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and musculoskeletal systems. Although it is often thought of as an AIDS-related condition, it may also be seen in other p...
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Hyperextension cervical injuries

Hyperextension cervical injuries are not uncommon and extremely serious: anterior longitudinal ligament injury avulsion fractures of the anterior arch of the atlas (C1) vertical fracture through the posterior arch of the atlas as a result of compression fractures of the dens of C2 hangman f...
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Septic arthritis

Septic arthritis is a destructive arthropathy caused by an intra-articular infection which usually manifests as severe symptoms such as pain and decreased range of motion. This condition requires prompt treatment aiming to avoid permanent damage to the joint, which may result in chronic deformit...
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Transverse sinus stenosis

Transverse sinus stenosis, or lateral sinus stenosis, describes reduction in the caliber of the transverse sinus. Although potentially seen in a number of contexts, including within the asymptomatic general population incidentally, transverse sinus stenosis is an important finding in patients wi...
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Choroidal hemangioma

Choroidal hemangiomas are benign vascular hamartomatous tumors of the choroid. They present in two forms based on the extent of choroidal involvement: circumscribed choroidal hemangioma (CCH): solitary tumor with no systemic associations diffuse choroidal hemangioma (DCH): usually in associat...
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Keratosis obturans

Keratosis obturans is a rare external auditory canal (EAC) disease characterized by abnormal accumulation and consequently occlusion and expansion of the bony portion of the EAC by a plug of desquamated keratin. It can be confused for EAC cholesteatoma but they are completely different entities ...
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Necrotizing otitis externa

Necrotizing otitis externa (NOE), also known as malignant otitis externa, is a severe invasive infection of the external auditory canal (EAC) which can spread rapidly to involve the surrounding soft tissue, adjacent neck spaces and skull base.  Pathology Predisposing conditions for necrotizing...
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Laimer diverticulum

Laimer diverticula occur in the cervical esophagus in the posterior midline inferior to the cricopharyngeal muscle 1,2. They are difficult to differentiate from Zenker diverticulum on imaging and endoscopy can be helpful in determining the exact location of the diverticulum 1-3. Epidemiology T...
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Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) syndrome is painful, limited hip motion due to specific morphological abnormalities in the femoral head-neck region and/or acetabulum. Femoroacetabular impingement can lead to early degenerative disease. Epidemiology Femoroacetabular impingement is common in ...
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Enucleation

Enucleation of the eye describes the surgical removal of the entire globe with the separation of all connections to the orbit, including optic nerve transection. Alternatives such as evisceration or exenteration can be considered according to the underlying diagnosis and disease. Rarely, auto-e...
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Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is a congenital genetic disorder resulting in rhizomelic dwarfism and is the most common skeletal dysplasia. It has numerous distinctive radiographic features.  Epidemiology It occurs due to sporadic mutations in the majority of cases but can be inherited as an autosomal dominan...
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Hysterosalpingogram

A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is a fluoroscopic examination of the uterus and the fallopian tubes, most commonly used in the investigation of infertility or recurrent spontaneous abortions. Indications infertility: to assess uterine morphology and tubal patency Contraindications pregnancy act...
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Uterine leiomyoma

Uterine leiomyomas, also known as uterine fibroids, are benign tumors of myometrial origin and are the most common solid benign uterine neoplasms. Commonly an incidental finding on imaging, they rarely cause a diagnostic dilemma. Epidemiology They are clinically apparent in ~25% of women of re...

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