Articles

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16,881 results found
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Steinstrasse

Steinstrasse [stīn′shtra-se] is the German word for "stone street", describing a possible complication of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for urinary tract calculi, wherein a column of stone fragments forms that blocks the ureter. Terminology The term steinstrasse can equally, alb...
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Epiphrenic diverticulum

Epiphrenic diverticula are pulsion diverticula of the distal esophagus arising just above the lower esophageal sphincter, more frequently on the right posterolateral wall. They are less frequent than traction mid esophageal diverticula but may have more clinical relevance.   Clinical presentat...
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Mastectomy

Mastectomy is a surgical treatment for breast cancer in which the entire breast tissue is removed through a surgical procedure as opposed to a wide local excision. Sometimes, adjacent structures, such as lymph nodes, are removed to prevent recurrence or metastasis. In some cases, mastectomy is d...
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Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNT) are lesions with distinct cytoarchitectural patterns. They are often considered part of the heterogeneous group of tumors known as long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small "bubbly" indolent subcortica...
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b values

In MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the b value measures the degree of diffusion weighting applied, thereby indicating the amplitude (G), time of applied gradients (δ) and duration between the paired gradients (Δ). It is calculated as: b = γ² G² δ² (Δ−δ/3) Therefore, a larger b valu...
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Achilles tendon tear

Achilles tendon tears are the most common ankle tendon injuries, with microtears to full thickness tendon tears of the Achilles tendon and are most commonly seen secondary to sports-related injury, especially squash and basketball. Epidemiology There is strong male over-representation presumab...
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Temporal bone destructive lesions (differential)

Destructive lesions of the temporal bone (petrous pyramid, middle ear and antrum) have a relatively broad differential including 1: lesions affecting petrous pyramid vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) meningioma glioma neuroma of trigeminal and facial nerve chordoma jugular paragang...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (P)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter P and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Stress fracture

Stress fractures refer to fractures occurring in the bone due to a mismatch of bone strength and chronic mechanical stress placed upon the bone. Terminology A pathological fracture, although a type of insufficiency fracture, is a term in general reserved for fractures occurring at the site of ...
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Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome

Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), also known as folliculin gene-associated syndrome, is a multi-system disease characterized by: cutaneous manifestations, typically fibrofolliculomas multiple lung cysts and spontaneous pneumothoraces increased risk of renal tumors, typically chromophobe oncocyt...
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Lesser sac

The lesser sac or omental bursa is a potential peritoneal space within the abdomen, part of the peritoneal cavity.  Gross anatomy The lesser sac may be conceptualized as the space posterior to the lesser omentum, between the posterior wall of the stomach and the surface of the peritoneum that ...
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Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia

Bottom of sulcus focal cortical dysplasia, or simply bottom of sulcus dysplasia, refers to a highly epileptogenic and localized focal cortical dysplasia that is anatomically restricted to, and maximal at, the bottom of a cortical sulcus. Clinical presentation The typical clinical presentation ...
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Blumcke classification of focal cortical dysplasia

Blumcke et al. proposed the widely adopted International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus classification system for focal cortical dysplasia in 2011 2, which shares many features with the previously described classification systems by Palmini (2004) and Barkovich (2005).  In 2022, an up...
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Focal cortical dysplasia

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders of cortical formation, which may demonstrate both architectural and proliferative features. They are one of the most common causes of epilepsy and can be associated with hippocampal sclerosis and cortical glioneuronal n...
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Bladder calculus

Bladder calculi, commonly referred to as bladder stones, are urinary stones that are found primarily in the urinary bladder and comprise only 5% of all urinary tract stones. They can be divided into primary, secondary, and migratory stones: primary: bladder stones form in the absence of other u...
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Acoustic shadowing

Acoustic shadowing (sometimes referred to as posterior acoustic shadowing) is a form of ultrasound artifact. It is characterized by the apparent lack of signal deep to an imaged tissue interface, due to all (or nearly all) of the transmitted sound wave being being reflected back to the transduce...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (E)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter E and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
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Hydrops fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is excessive fluid into the third space in a fetus, which could be due to heart failure, volume overload, decreased oncotic pressure, or increased vascular permeability. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 in 2000 births, although this can significantly vary according...
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Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, also known as endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), is a commonly used surgical approach for pituitary region masses, with many significant advantages over open craniotomy.  History The transsphenoidal approach was first described in 1907 by Schloffer, modi...
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Non-specific interstitial pneumonia

Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is the second most common morphological and pathological pattern of interstitial lung diseases after UIP. NSIP is commonly associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) and the underlying diagnosis and management are best decided by a multidisciplinar...

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