Articles

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16,912 results
Article

Cyst of the ligamentum flavum

Cysts of the ligamentum flavum, also known as flaval cysts, are classified as a type of degenerative spinal cysts 1, which arise from the ligamentum flavum. Epidemiology Cyst of the ligamentum flavum do not show a gender predilection (M=F) and are most commonly found in the middle aged and eld...
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Inion

The inion (plural: inia/inions) is the tip of the external occipital protuberance (EOP), the midline bony prominence in the occipital bone from which the ligamentum nuchae and trapezius muscle attach. It is usually easily palpable1. Clinical importance The inion the surface marking of the inte...
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Posterior interosseous nerve

The posterior interosseous nerve, also known as the dorsal interosseous nerve, is the continuation of the deep branch of the radial nerve after it penetrates the supinator muscle. It carries fibers from the C7 and C8 spinal nerves and supplies the majority of the muscles in the posterior compart...
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Xerostomia

Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth, and is most commonly due to hyposalivation. Epidemiology Xerostomia is the most frequently observed salivary abnormality in clinical practice 1. Clinical presentation dryness of the mouth uncomfortable swallowing vocalisation difficulties: to...
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Wrist radiograph (an approach)

Wrist radiographs are ubiquitous on any night of the week in emergency departments, especially when pavements are icy!  Systematic review Choosing a search strategy and utilizing it consistently is a helpful method to overcome common errors seen in diagnostic radiology. The order in which you ...
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Wrist series

The wrist series is comprised of a posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projection. The series examines the carpal bones that are consisting of the scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate. It also examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joint alo...
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T2 relaxation

T2 relaxation, also known as spin-spin relaxation or transverse relaxation, refers to the progressive dephasing of spinning dipoles resulting in decay in the magnetization in the transverse plane (Mxy). Following a radiofrequency pulse, this form of relaxation occurs with the time constant T2 (a...
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Avulsion injury

Avulsion injuries or fractures occur where the joint capsule, ligament, tendon or muscle attachment site is pulled off from the bone, usually taking a fragment of cortical bone. Avulsion fractures are commonly distracted due to the high tensile forces involved. There are numerous sites at which ...
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Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of breast tissue (glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts) and a normal nipple and areola complex. However, the most common etiology of amazia is iatrogenic; biopsy of the developing breast and the use of radiation th...
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Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones

Bilateral thinning of the parietal bones, also known as biparietal osteodystrophy, is an uncommon, slowly progressive acquired disease of middle-aged people with a slight female predilection. It is typically an incidental finding.  Pathology The etiology is unknown but is thought to be an age-...
Article

Ankle series

The ankle series is comprised of an anteroposterior (AP), mortise and lateral radiograph. The series is often used in emergency departments to evaluate the distal tibia, distal fibula, and the talus; forming the ankle joint. See approach to an ankle series. Terminology Mortise and mortice are...
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Ankle radiograph (an approach)

Ankle radiographs are frequently performed in emergency departments, usually, after trauma, the radiographic series is comprised of three views: an anteroposterior, mortise, and a lateral. They may be performed to assess degenerative or inflammatory arthritis as well as to look for the sequela o...
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Pelvic radiograph (an approach)

Pelvic radiographs are a mainstay radiographic examination in trauma imaging. The standard radiographic exam is an AP pelvis, however more specialized projections can be requested to answer specific clinical questions. For a list of the specialized views see the pelvis series article. Systemati...
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Foot radiograph (an approach)

Foot radiographs are commonly performed in Emergency departments, usually after sport-related trauma and often with a clinical request that states lateral border pain. Remember to check the whole film, though. Often, a foot x-ray is also requested for the investigation of osteomyelitis, arthriti...
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Hand series

The hand series consists of posteroanterior, oblique, and lateral projections. Although additional radiographs can be taken for specific indications. The series primarily examines the radiocarpal and distal radioulnar joints, the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. Indications Hand x-rays ar...
Article

Hilton's law

Hilton's law states that a joint tends to be innervated by a branch of a motor nerve which also supplies a muscle extending and acting across the joint. Another branch of the nerve often supplies the overlying skin. History and etymology The term is named after British surgeon John Hilton (180...
Article

Lumbar spine (AP/PA view)

The lumbar spine anteroposterior or posteroanterior view images the lumbar spine in its anatomical position. The lumbar spine generally consists of five vertebrae (see: lumbosacral transitional vertebra). Indications This projection is utilized in many imaging contexts including trauma, postop...
Article

Leukemia (testicular manifestations)

Leukemia testicular manifestations, or testicular leukemia, can be seen in patients during and after acute leukemia. The blood-testis barrier limits chemotherapy from reaching the testis, and therefore the testis can act as a sanctuary for leukemic cells. Clinical presentation Patients typical...
Article

Leukemia (musculoskeletal involvement)

Musculoskeletal involvement of leukemia is not always apparent on imaging, although the disease is per se characterized by leukemic infiltration of bone marrow.   Leukemia is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the overproduction of immature (blasts) or abnormally differentiated cells of ...
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Modified Dallas discographic classification of intervertebral disc radial tears

The modified Dallas classification describes the discography appearance of radial annular tears of the intervertebral disc. Classification grade 0: contrast remains in the nucleus pulposus grade 1: contrast leaks into the inner 1/3 of the annulus fibrosus grade 2: contrast leaks into the mid...

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