Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,794 results found
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Computed radiography

Computed radiography (CR) is the use of photostimulable phosphor as an image receptor. The image receptor is held in a similar casing (cassette) to that of the traditional film screen. Computed radiography harnesses the absorption of radiation, trapping electrons at energy levels via the process...
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Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia

Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is the second most common cause of acute mesenteric ischemia, with a higher incidence in hospitalized and critical care patients.  Epidemiology Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia accounts for ~25% (range 20-30%) of acute mesenteric ischemia. It most commonly af...
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Thyrocervical trunk

The thyrocervical trunk is one of the 3 branches of the first part of the subclavian artery and gives off numerous branches to supply viscera of the neck, the brachial plexus, neck muscles, and the scapular anastomosis. Gross anatomy Origin The trunk arises lateral to the vertebral artery fro...
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Ascending cervical artery

The ascending cervical artery is a paired artery from the lower neck that supplies deep neck muscles and most commonly originates from the inferior thyroid artery. Gross anatomy Location The ascending cervical artery travels upwards in the neck, lateral to and parallel to the vertebral artery...
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Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia refers to underdevelopment of one or both lungs. This can be rapidly fatal at birth or mild, escaping detection for decades. It is most often secondary to congenital abnormalities that either restrict intrathoracic space or alter pulmonary fluid dynamics. Epidemiology Pulm...
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Transient intussusception

Transient or uncomplicated intussusception is known to occur in both adults and children and can be considered physiological. Given the transient nature of the condition, it is probably underdiagnosed. The main factors that distinguish transient from intussusceptions requiring surgical intervent...
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Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, life-threatening complication that usually occurs in new-onset and established type 1 diabetic patients due to a state of severe insulin deficiency. This condition is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Epidemiology Diabetic ket...
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CT angiography of the circle of Willis (protocol)

CT angiography of the circle of Willis (CTA COW) is a technique that allows visualization of the intracranial arteries; specifically the circle of Willis. While digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms especially, CTA is a less i...
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS manifestations)

Central nervous system manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (CNS lupus), also known as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), describe a very diverse range of neuropsychiatric manifestations that are secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the central nervous...
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Renal transplant

Renal transplantation is one, if not the most, common transplant procedures undertaken worldwide. Consequently, purposeful and incidental imaging of renal transplants and renal transplant-related complications are increasingly common. These include acute renal transplant rejection and chronic re...
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Hepatocellular carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called hepatoma, is the most common primary malignancy of the liver. It is strongly associated with cirrhosis, from both alcohol and viral etiologies. Hepatocellular carcinomas constitute approximately 5% of all cancers partly due to the high endemic rates of...
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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (less commonly known as Bechterew disease or Marie-Strümpell disease) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy, which results in fusion (ankylosis) of the spine and sacroiliac (SI) joints, although involvement is also seen in large and small joints. Epidemiology Traditional...
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PET-MRI

PET-MRI is a hybrid imaging technique utilizing the functional uptake information of positron emission tomography (PET) with the anatomical and soft tissue detail of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Early systems were tested in the late 2000s with commercial availability from 2010 1,2. The ava...
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Increased fetal renal echogenicity

Increased fetal renal echogenicity is a non-specific sonographic finding with no underlying cause seen in many cases, although it is a potential indicator of underlying disease due to the association with numerous pathologies (especially if accompanied by enlargement) 1: chromosomal abnormaliti...
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Apple core sign (colon)

The apple core sign, also known as the napkin ring sign (bowel), is most frequently associated with constriction of the lumen of the colon by a stenosing annular colorectal carcinoma. It is not to be confused with the napkin ring sign of vulnerable coronary artery plaque or the apple core sign ...
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Pancreatic duct diameter

The diameter of the (main) pancreatic duct is a commonly assessed parameter in imaging. Gross anatomy The duct diameter is greatest at the head and neck region and is slightly narrower towards the body and tail. Its normal reported value ranges between 1-3.5 mm in <50 year old and 2-5 mm in 70...
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Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar underlying...
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Hepatobiliary contrast agents and LI-RADS

LI-RADS (Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System) is both a set of standardized terminology and a classification system for imaging findings in liver lesions. The LI-RADS score for a liver lesion is an indication of its relative risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The classification system ...
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Flavoring-related lung disease

Flavoring-related lung disease is a potentially disabling and sometimes fatal lung disease of workers making or using flavourings. It is a form of inhalational lung disease and some also regard it as a form of pneumoconiosis. Pathology It is thought to be mostly triggered by volatile α-dicarbo...
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Rapidly progressive left ventricular myocardial calcification

Rapidly progressive left ventricular myocardial calcification is a rarely reported phenomenon of severe sepsis and renal failure usually occurring over weeks. Pathology The exact etiology is not well known although some attribute it to the release of cardio-suppressing mediators with calcium-p...

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