Articles

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16,854 results found
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Long COVID-19

Long COVID-19 also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or post COVID-19 condition, is a post-viral syndrome affecting people who have recovered from COVID-19 infection. Symptoms are similar to those experienced by patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS...
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Pulmonary arterial ectasia

Pulmonary arterial ectasia refers to more diffuse dilatation of the pulmonary arteries without a focal pulmonary arterial aneurysm. At the time of writing, the upper limit of normal (90th percentile) for the main pulmonary arteries is taken at just under 29 mm for males and just under 27 mm for ...
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Blake's pouch cyst

Blake's pouch cyst is a cystic appearing structure that represents posterior ballooning of the inferior medullary velum into the cisterna magna, below and posterior to the vermis, that communicates with an open fourth ventricle. It is caused by a failure of the regression of Blake's pouch second...
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Tarlov cyst

Tarlov cysts, also called perineural cysts, are CSF-filled dilatations of the nerve root sheath at the dorsal root ganglion (posterior nerve root sheath). These are type II spinal meningeal cysts that are, by definition, extradural but contain neural tissue. Most Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic, ...
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Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon primary tumor of the peritoneal lining. It shares epidemiological and pathological features with - but is less common than - its pleural counterpart, which is described in detail in the general article on mesothelioma. Other abdominal subtypes (al...
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Chest (lateral view)

The lateral chest view examines the lungs, bony thoracic cavity, mediastinum, and great vessels. Indications This orthogonal view to a frontal chest radiograph may be performed as an adjunct in cases where there is diagnostic uncertainty. The lateral chest view can be particularly useful in as...
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Malignant phyllodes tumor

Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast accounts for up to a quarter of the phyllodes tumors. Please, refer to the main article on phyllodes tumors for a general discussion.  Pathology It is generally thought that it is the stromal component that becomes malignant 4. This may account for thei...
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Focal nodular hyperplasia

Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a regenerative mass lesion of the liver and the second most common benign liver lesion (the most common is a hemangioma). Many focal nodular hyperplasias have characteristic radiographic features on multimodality imaging, but some lesions may be atypical in app...
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Löffler syndrome

Simple pulmonary eosinophilia (also known as Löffler syndrome) is a type of pulmonary eosinophilia that typically presents with transient radiographic infiltrates, minimal constitutional upset, and an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood. Pathology Etiology The cause is not usually i...
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Coarctation of the aorta

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) refers to a narrowing of the aortic lumen. Epidemiology Coarctations account for between 5-8% of all congenital heart defects. They are more frequent in males, M:F ratio of ~2-3:1. Associations As with many congenital abnormalities, coarctation of the aorta is ...
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Interrupted aortic arch

Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is an uncommon congenital cardiovascular anomaly where there is a separation between the ascending and descending aorta. It can either be complete or connected by a remnant fibrous band. An accompanying large ventricular septal defect (VSD) and/or patent ductus arte...
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Photon-counting computed tomography

Photon-counting computed tomography (PCCT) is a new technology in CT that could represent the next major technological milestone in the field. Briefly, photon-counting CT uses energy-resolving detectors, thereby enabling scanning at multiple energies. Technique Physical principles Current cli...
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Reflection

Reflection of a sound wave occurs when the wave passes between two tissues of different acoustic impedances and a fraction of the wave 'bounces' back. This forms one of the major principles of ultrasound imaging as the ultrasound probe detects these reflected waves to form the desired image. An...
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Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses (version 2005)

The Bosniak classification system of renal cystic masses, now known as Bosniak v2005, divides renal cystic masses into five categories based on imaging characteristics on contrast-enhanced CT, and helps predict a risk of malignancy and suggests either follow-up or treatment. An updated classific...
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Mandibular fracture

Mandibular fractures are relatively common especially among young men. Although traditionally the mandible and base of skull are thought to form a complete bony ring, interrupted only by the TMJs. This should mean that the mandible should fracture in two places (akin to the bony pelvis) making s...
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Intraosseous lipoma

Intraosseous lipomas are rare benign lesions that account for about 0.1-2.5% of all bone tumors. They are, however, the most common lipogenic tumors in bone 6. Intraosseous lipomas account for one of the 'I's in the popular mnemonic for lucent bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC. Epidemiology Intraosseo...
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Langerhans cell histiocytosis (skeletal manifestations)

The skeleton is the most commonly involved organ system in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and is by far the most common location for single-lesion LCH, often referred to as eosinophilic granuloma (EG) (the terms are used interchangeably in this article). For a general discussion of this dis...
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Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an autosomal dominant microvasculopathy characterized by recurrent lacunar and subcortical white matter ischemic strokes and vascular dementia in young and middle age patients without known va...
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Neonatal pneumothorax

Neonatal pneumothorax describes pneumothoraces occurring in neonates. It is a life-threatening condition, associated with high morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis is a challenge especially when the amount of air is small and may accumulate along the anterior or medial pleural space. Epidemio...
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Chest (lateral decubitus view)

The lateral decubitus view of the chest is a specialized projection that is now rarely used due to the ubiquity of CT.  It is chiefly used in the pediatric population. Indication Undertaken to demonstrate small pleural effusions, or for the investigation of pneumothorax and air trapping due to...

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