Articles

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16,792 results found
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False vocal cords

The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds, ventricular bands) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the laryngeal vestibule above from the laryngeal ventricle below. They function to protect the airway and play very little if any par...
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Intrinsic muscles of the larynx

The intrinsic muscles of the larynx can be considered in two groups: muscles that control the inlet of the larynx muscles that move the vocal ligaments Gross anatomy Muscles of the inlet aryepiglottic muscle: lies within the aryepiglottic fold, runs from the side of the epiglottis and inser...
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Cerebral abscess

A cerebral abscess is a focal area of necrosis starting in an area of cerebritis surrounded by a membrane. It is a potentially life-threatening condition requiring prompt radiological identification and rapid treatment. Fortunately, MRI is usually able to convincingly make the diagnosis, disting...
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Empyema necessitans

Empyema necessitans (also sometimes spelled as empyema necessitatis) refers to the extension of an empyema out of the pleural space and into the neighboring chest wall and surrounding soft tissues. Pathology It may either occur due to the virulence of the organism or may be facilitated by prev...
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Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the cartilages of the larynx, with its superior border sitting at the level of the C4 vertebra. Gross anatomy The thyroid cartilage consists of bilateral flattened laminae that are fused in the anterior midline to form the laryngeal prominence (Adam's ap...
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Cricoid cartilage

The cricoid cartilage is a ring-shaped laryngeal cartilage that sits below the thyroid cartilage and above the tracheal rings, at the level of the C6 vertebra. It is the only complete cartilaginous ring of the whole airway. Gross anatomy It consists of a thinner anterior portion, called the ar...
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Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a single midline leaf-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure that forms part of the supraglottic larynx and defines the division of the hypopharynx from the larynx. It helps conduct food boluses from the oropharynx to esophagus, avoiding the food entry into the larynx 7. It is one...
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Arytenoid cartilage

The arytenoid cartilages are paired hyaline cartilages that articulate with the sloping upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage via the synovial cricoarytenoid joint. This joint allows movement of the arytenoid cartilages, which is vital in approximating, tensing and relaxing the voc...
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Corniculate cartilage

The corniculate cartilages are small paired, elastic and accessory cartilages of the larynx that lie superior to and articulate with the superior process of the arytenoid cartilages. They are 2 of the 9 laryngeal cartilages. History and etymology The word 'corniculate' comes from the Latin wor...
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Rima glottidis

The rima glottidis is the V-shaped opening formed between the true vocal cords, which permits the passage of air through the larynx. Abduction or adduction of the vocal cords can open or close the rima glottidis. The rima glottidis constitutes part of the glottic region of the larynx. It should...
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Rima vestibuli

The rima vestibuli is the V-shaped space formed between the false vocal cords, which allows the passage of air through the larynx. It is larger and located superior to the rima glottidis. It should not be confused for the laryngeal vestibule, which is the entire open space of the supraglottis b...
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Testicular development and descent

Testicular development and descent is an important topic due to the clinical gonadal manifestations seen in children and adults secondary to abnormal development. Development The testes are derived from the gonadal ridge medial to the mesonephric ridge of the intermediate cell mass.  Descent ...
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Testis

The testes (singular: testis), also known as the testicles, are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. Terminology The term testis (plural testes) is preferred by the Terminologia Anatomica, over testicle. ...
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Eisenmenger syndrome

The Eisenmenger syndrome is a complication of an uncorrected high-flow, high-pressure congenital heart anomaly leading to chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension and shunt reversal. Epidemiology In general, the shunts that lead to Eisenmenger syndrome share high pressure and high flow 3. As su...
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Larynx

The larynx is an inferior continuation of the oropharynx. It extends from the epiglottis (namely the glossoepiglottic and pharyngoepiglottic folds) to the inferior aspect of the cricoid cartilage. Inferiorly, it continues as the cervical trachea. The larynx also forms part of the upper respirato...
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Parapharyngeal space

The parapharyngeal space (PPS), also known as the prestyloid parapharyngeal space, is a deep compartment of the head and neck around which most other suprahyoid fascial spaces are arranged. It consists largely of fat, neurovascular structures, and, in some definitions, the retromandibular part o...
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Sheehan vessels

Sheehan vessels refer to neovascularity that develops due to pulmonary hypertension, particularly, but not exclusively, in the context of Eisenmenger syndrome. Pathology The exact pathogenesis of Sheehan vessels has not been fully elucidated, but it is felt that neovascularization develops sec...
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Fetal posterior cerebral artery

A fetal (origin of the) posterior cerebral artery is a common variant in the posterior cerebral circulation, estimated to occur in 20-30% of individuals 2. A fetal posterior communicating artery (PCom) describes a situation whereby the PCom is larger than the P1 segment of the posterior cerebra...
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Cuneiform cartilage

The cuneiform cartilages are small, paired accessory laryngeal cartilages that reside in the aryepiglottic fold. They take the form of club-like nodules, visible as elevations beneath the mucosa (the cuneiform tubercle) anterosuperior to the corniculate cartilages. They do not directly articulat...
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Middle phalanx fracture

Middle phalanx fractures are the least common of the phalanx fractures. Radiographic features These fractures are generally well visualized on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography can be used in unclear cases. Treatment and prognosis Non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with a...

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