Articles

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16,879 results found
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Sarcoidosis (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in ~20% (range 4-38%) of patients with sarcoidosis and include joint involvement, bone lesions, and muscular disease. Approximately 25% of patients with sarcoidosis have associated arthropathy.  Pathology joints: joint involvement in sarcoido...
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Usual interstitial pneumonia

Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is a histopathologic and radiologic pattern of interstitial lung disease. In the appropriate clinical setting this may allow a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).  UIP pattern at CT includes honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and traction bron...
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Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (historical)

Hemangiopericytomas of the meninges are rare tumors of the meninges, now considered to be an aggressive form of solitary fibrous tumors of the dura. They often present as large and locally aggressive dural masses, frequently extending through the skull vault. They are difficult to distinguish on...
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Radiology (journal)

Radiology is a peer-reviewed monthly journal published by the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Its first edition was issued in September 1923 1. Impact factor According to the Radiology website, the journal's impact factor for 2021 is 29.146, an increase from 11.105 in 2020. Its E...
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Transmantle sign (brain)

The transmantle sign is an MRI feature of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), almost exclusively seen in type II focal cortical dysplasia (Taylor dysplasia - also known as transmantle cortical dysplasia for this reason). However, it is not always present, seen in ~45% (range 21-72%) of patients with...
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Floating knee

Floating knees occur when there are ipsilateral fractures of both femoral and tibial shafts. These are relatively rare injuries with reported poor outcomes. Clinical presentation The usual presentation is a combined closed midshaft femoral fracture and open midshaft tibial fracture. Vascular i...
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Compressive myelopathy

Compressive myelopathy refers to neurological deficits that result from compression of the spinal cord. It most commonly occurs in the cervical spinal cord.  Pathology Any cause of spinal canal stenosis including cervical spondylosis (endplate changes, disc herniation, osteophytes, facet joint...
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Owl-eyes sign (spinal cord)

The owl-eyes sign, also known as snake-eyes sign or fried-eggs sign, represents bilaterally symmetric circular to ovoid foci of high T2-weighted signals in the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and is seen on axial MR imaging. The sagittal corollary is a "pencil-like" vertical linear high T...
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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis is the preferred general term for the permanent replacement of lung parenchyma by connective tissue and is typically associated with functional impairment. A variety of insults cause focal or diffuse lung injury (mechanical, infectious, inflammatory and iatrogenic). Lung repai...
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Cystic nephroma

Cystic nephromas, previously known as multilocular cystic nephromas, are rare benign renal neoplasms classically occurring in adult females in the 4th and 5th decades. As of the 2016 WHO classification, they are considered distinct from pediatric cystic nephromas which have associated DICER1 gen...
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Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm

Pulmonary artery pseudoaneurysm refers to a pseudoaneurysm arising from the pulmonary arteries. Pathology A pseudoaneurysm results from a tear or disruption of all three layers of the vessel wall. Extravasated blood is contained by compressed extravascular tissue or a clot, which makes up the ...
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Right-sided aortic arch

Right-sided aortic arch is a type of aortic arch variant characterized by the aortic arch coursing to the right of the trachea. Different configurations can be found based on the supra-aortic branching patterns, with the two most common patterns being the right-sided aortic arch with mirror imag...
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Osteonecrosis

Osteonecrosis (plural: osteonecroses) is a generic term referring to the ischemic death of the constituents of bone. It has a wide variety of causes and can affect nearly any bone in the body. Most sites of involvement have an eponym associated with osteonecrosis of that area (see list below), a...
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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is the largest cardiac venous structure. It returns the majority of the blood supply for the left ventricle to the right atrium. Gross anatomy The coronary sinus courses along the posterior wall of the left atrium into the left atrioventricular groove. It normally drains int...
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Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumor

Multinodular and vacuolating neuronal tumors (MVNT) are lesions with distinct cytoarchitectural patterns. They are often considered part of the heterogeneous group of tumors known as long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs). Radiologically, MVNTs appear as small "bubbly" indolent subcortica...
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Lacunar stroke syndrome

Lacunar stroke syndrome is a description of the clinical syndrome that results from a lacunar infarct.  Each of the five classical lacunar syndromes has a relatively distinct symptom complex. Symptoms may occur suddenly, progressively, or in a fluctuating manner (e.g. the capsular warning syndr...
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Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis, commonly known as pars interarticularis defect or pars defect, is a defect in the pars interarticularis, the portion of the vertebral neural arch that connects the superior and inferior articular facets. Epidemiology Spondylolysis is present in ~5% of the population 2 and higher...
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Sprengel deformity

Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of the scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. An initial diagnosis can often be made on radiographs, but CT or MRI is often necessary to evaluate the details of the abnormality. Epidemio...
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AO/OTA classification of distal femur fractures

The AO/OTA classification of distal femoral fractures is a commonly used fracture classification system in orthopedic trauma. Classification In the AO/OTA classification system, the distal femur system's prefix is 33, indicating the femur (3) and the distal portion of the femur (3) 1. Each lo...
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Winquist and Hansen classification of femoral shaft fractures

The Winquist and Hansen classification of femoral shaft fractures is based on fracture comminution and stability. Usage The Winquist system is commonly used along with the AO/OTA classification of femoral diaphyseal fractures 4. This classification was originally used to assist (along with ot...

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