Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,911 results found
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Right lower lobe consolidation

Right lower lobe consolidation refers to consolidation in part (incomplete) or all (complete) of the right lower lobe. Pathology Consolidation refers to the alveolar airspaces being filled with fluid (exudate/transudate/blood), cells (inflammatory), tissue, or other material. The list of caus...
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Iliotibial band syndrome

Iliotibial band (friction) syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain related to intense physical activity resulting in chronic inflammation of the fat adjacent to the iliotibial band (ITB). Alternatively, the same pathology can occur over the greater trochanter and is considered the same d...
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Lower limb radiography

Lower limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the pelvis, hip joint, femur, knee joint, tibia, fibula, ankle joint, tarsal bones of the foot and metatarsals. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. Sometimes it can be used in skeletal s...
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Upper limb radiography

Upper limb radiography is the radiological investigation of the shoulder girdle, humerus, ulna, radius, carpals and metacarpals of the hand. It is often utilized in the context of trauma to rule out fractures and dislocations. Sometimes it can be used in skeletal surveys as well.
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Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors

Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) is a pragmatic grouping of varied primary brain tumors that share a number of features including slow indolent growth rate, localization to the cortex and a predilection for the temporal lobe. These characteristics combine to make them a common cause...
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Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA) are an uncommon circumscribed astrocytic tumor found in young patients and can be WHO grade 2 or 3. They are often considered part of the heterogeneous group of tumors known as long-term epilepsy-associated tumors (LEATs) 9.  Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas m...
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Cardiac amyloidosis

Cardiac amyloidosis (plural: amyloidoses) is a significant source of morbidity among patients with systemic amyloidosis and is the most common cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy outside the tropics. Pathology Amyloidosis represents the extracellular deposition of insoluble fibrillar proteinac...
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Transthyretin amyloidosis

Transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is a form of systemic amyloidosis characterized by the misfolding, aggregation and deposition of transthyretin-related (TTR) protein in various organs 1-6. This can occur in the following two forms namely in the setting of a genetically normal transthyretin-relat...
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Late gadolinium enhancement

Late gadolinium enhancement is a technique used in cardiac MRI for cardiac tissue characterization, in particular, the assessment of myocardial scar formation and regional myocardial fibrosis 1-5. Terminology Late gadolinium enhancement is also known under the terms ‘late enhancement’ or ‘dela...
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Facial palsy

Facial palsy refers to the neurological syndrome of facial paralysis. It can result from a broad range of physiological insults to the facial nerve or its central nervous system origins. The most common causes of this is Bell palsy.  Terminology While facial palsy refers to the clinical presen...
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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis represents the end result of a continuous, prolonged, inflammatory, and fibrosing process that affects the pancreas. This results in irreversible morphologic changes and permanent endocrine and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. Epidemiology The most common cause of chronic ...
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Saline flush during contrast medium administration

The saline flush during contrast medium administration, also known as a saline chaser, is a secondary injection following the administration of contrast medium via a power injector. It is used in both CT and MRI. The primary purpose of the saline chaser is to ‘push’ the otherwise unused contras...
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Routes of administration and retrieval

Routes of administration and retrieval refers to the multiple different routes by which substances can be transferred into (e.g. medication) , or removed from (e.g. pus), the human body. These routes most commonly employ natural non-intimate orifices of the body and therefore are usually not con...
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Iodine

Iodine (chemical symbol I) is one of the trace elements. Its biological importance is its central place in the physiology of the thyroid gland and, in radiology, as the key chemical constituent of most of the radiographic, fluoroscopic, and CT contrast media. Chemistry Basic chemistry Iodine ...
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Hilton's law

Hilton's law states that a joint tends to be innervated by a branch of a motor nerve which also supplies a muscle extending and acting across the joint. Another branch of the nerve often supplies the overlying skin. History and etymology The term was coined by British surgeon John Hilton (1805...
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Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are the most common histologic type of head and neck cancer. While the term may include any squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, common usage focuses on those of mucosal origin, i.e., squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract...
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Posterior superior aortic recess

The posterior superior aortic recess, also known as the superior pericardial recess or the superior sinus, is one of the variable invaginations of the superior aortic recess and is located posterior to the ascending aorta. Differential diagnosis It may sometimes mimic mediastinal lymphadenopa...
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Walled-off pancreatic necrosis

Walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a late complication of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, although it can occur in chronic pancreatitis or as a result of pancreatic trauma. Differentiation of WOPN from pancreatic pseudocyst is essential because management differs. WOPN may need aggressive ...
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Ultrasound of the shoulder

Ultrasound of the shoulder is a fast, relatively cheap, and dynamic way to examine the rotator cuff and is particularly useful in diagnosing: shoulder impingement shoulder instability rotator cuff disorders The examination requires attention to technique and appropriate patient positioning. ...
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Septic arthritis

Septic arthritis can cause rapid chondrolysis and destructive arthropathy. Intra-articular infection usually manifests with severe pain and decreased range of motion. Prompt treatment can avoid permanent damage to the joint which may result in chronic deformity, mechanical arthritis and even dea...

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