Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,851 results found
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Jarcho-Levin syndrome

Jarcho-Levin syndrome, or spondylothoracic dysostosis, is a rare genetic disorder. Terminology Previously, spondylocostal dysostosis was considered part of the Jarcho-Levin syndrome spectrum. Epidemiology The exact prevalence of this disease is unknown. Clinical presentation It is primaril...
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Erlenmeyer flask deformity (mnemonic)

Some of the causes of an Erlenmeyer flask deformity can be recalled with the following mnemonics: LORA CHONG AP OF DR GHLN CHONG Lead GNOME APC(de)FGH Mnemonics LORA CHONG L: leukemia, lead poisoning O: osteopetrosis, osteochondromatosis R: rheumatoid arthritis, rickets A: achondropla...
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Dark-field radiography

Dark-field radiography is an emerging medical imaging technology. While conventional x-ray imaging is based on the differential attenuation of various organs and tissues, dark-field radiography utilizes ultra-small angle x-ray scattering similar to dark-field computed tomography. Clinical appli...
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Whirlpool sign (testicular torsion)

The whirlpool sign of the spermatic cord is a direct sign of testicular torsion, both complete and incomplete (i.e. <360°). It is considered to be the most specific and sensitive sign for testicular torsion. Terminology The term whirlpool sign is used in other contexts: see whirlpool sign (dis...
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Imaging technology article structure

Articles about imaging technology require a different structure than articles about disease. Articles with this structure are generally assigned to the imaging technology section and may also be assigned to a specific system if appropriate. ======================================================...
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Elastography

Elastography is a newer technique that exploits the fact that a pathological process alters the elastic properties of the involved tissue. This change in elasticity is detected and imaged using elastography. Radiographic technique Sono-elastography Sono-elastography is the term used when ultr...
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Tunica albuginea cyst

Tunica albuginea cysts are the most common extratesticular benign scrotal mass lesion. They are a type of scrotal tunica cyst. Epidemiology The mean age at presentation of tunica albuginea cysts is 40 years, although they may be seen in the 5th and 6th decades. Clinical presentation Tunica a...
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Iterative reconstruction (CT)

Iterative reconstruction refers to an image reconstruction algorithm used in CT that begins with an image assumption and compares it to real-time measured values while making constant adjustments until the two are in agreement. Computer technology limited early scanners in their ability to perf...
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Cardiac strain imaging

Strain imaging is a cardiac imaging technique that detects ventricular deformation patterns and functional abnormalities before they become obvious as regional wall motion abnormalities on conventional cine imaging or echo. It has become more popular lately due to several technological improveme...
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Virtual grid

Virtual grid software is a relatively new innovation utilizing no physical grid at all. Instead, the original purpose of a grid is replicated by an algorithm 1 based on fundamental mathematics (i.e. Laplace transformation, wavelet transformation and Gaussian decomposition) which iteratively reco...
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Pneumorrhachis

Pneumorrhachis refers to the presence of gas within the spinal canal (either intra- or extradural). It is rare. Clinical presentation Patients can often be asymptomatic 3. Pathology Etiology Pneumorrhachis can result from a number of causes: trauma (traumatic pneumorrhachis): can occur in ...
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Raised intracranial pressure

Raised intracranial pressure is a pathological increase in the intracranial pressure and is a medical emergency.  Clinical presentation The symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure are often non-specific and insidious in onset: headache drowsiness anorexia visual disturbances bl...
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Portal venous gas

Portal venous gas, also known as pneumatosis portalis, is the accumulation of gas in the portal vein and its branches. It needs to be distinguished from pneumobilia, although this is usually not too problematic when associated findings are taken into account along with the pattern of gas (i.e. p...
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Mendosal suture

The mendosal suture, also known as the accessory occipital suture, is a normal calvarial suture. Gross anatomy The suture extends through the occipital bone, lying superior to the occipitomastoid suture and inferomedial to the lambdoid suture. It closes in utero or in the first few days of lif...
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Occipital bone

The occipital bone, also known as C0, is a trapezoid skull bone that contributes to the posteroinferior part of the cranial vault. It is pierced by the foramen magnum, permitting communication from the cranial cavity to the vertebral canal. Terminology Occiput is a noun referring to the back o...
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Skull

The skull (TA: cranium) consists of 22 bones, excluding the three ossicles in each middle ear. All of the bones of the skull are connected to each other by sutures, a type of fibrous joint, rendering them immobile. These 21 bones form the cranium, and are subdivided into: neurocranium calvari...
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Skull sutures

There are many skull sutures, which is the name given to the fibrous joints formed where the bones of the skull meet. In general, sutures do not fuse until brain growth is complete, therefore allowing the skull to increase in size with the developing brain. Gross anatomy Skull sutures are fibr...
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Pubis

The pubis, together with the ilium and ischium, make up the innominate bone of the pelvis. These are individual bones in the young and unite to form one bone in adults, the principal union forming the fused acetabulum. The pubis is the ventral part of the innominate bone and forms a median cart...
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Granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease

Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GL-ILD) describes non-infectious diffuse lung disease complications that have been reported to traditionally develop in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Epidemiology Associations Although it is almost always associated...
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Gracilis muscle

The gracilis muscle is the most superficial muscle in the medial compartment of the thigh and descends almost vertically down the medial side of the thigh. Summary origin: a line on the external surfaces of the body of the pubis, inferior pubic ramus, and the ramus of the ischium insertion: a...

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