Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,792 results found
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Radioactivity

Radioactivity, also known as radioactive decay, describes the process of spontaneous breakdown of unstable (or radioactive) nuclides, with the formation of daughter nuclei and release of subatomic particles and/or gamma radiation. A single decay (a.k.a. disintegration) refers to the degradation ...
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Nuclide

A nuclide is a nuclear-centric term describing an atomic species by its nuclear composition and nuclear energy state. A nuclide has a specific number of protons and neutrons and will additionally have a specific energy state of its nucleus. Radionuclides are unstable nuclides that undergo radi...
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Cyclotron

A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator that uses a uniform magnetic field to accelerate particles in a spiral path. The accelerated particles are then used to bombard target nuclei to produce a wide variety of radionuclides 1. Cyclotron is an improvement on the linac (linear particle acc...
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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a generic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antiplatelet agent. It is one of the most-widely if not the most commonly used drug in the world and is listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 1-4. It is used as an over-the-coun...
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Middle phalanx fracture

Middle phalanx fractures are the least common of the phalanx fractures. Radiographic features These fractures are generally well visualized on plain radiographs. Ultrasonography can be used in unclear cases. Treatment and prognosis Non-displaced fractures can be treated conservatively with a...
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Chylothorax

A chylothorax (plural: chylothoraces), also known as chylopleura, chylous hydrothorax or chylous pleurisy 13, refers to the presence of chylous fluid in the pleural space often as a result of obstruction or disruption to the thoracic duct. It may be congenital or acquired. Epidemiology Associa...
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Orbital dermoid cyst

Orbital dermoid cysts are congenital lesions representing closed sacs lined by an ectodermal epithelium and comprising the most common orbital mass in children. They are typically divided into deep (within the orbit) and superficial (adjacent to the orbital rim). Epidemiology They comprise ~2%...
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Reye syndrome

Reye syndrome is a rare pediatric condition characterized by acute onset encephalopathy, severe vomiting and fatty liver failure. It typically presents in children recovering from a viral illness, most commonly influenza or chickenpox 1.  Epidemiology Reye syndrome is usually seen between the ...
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Chronic beryllium lung disease

Chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) or sometimes just simply known as berylliosis refers to lung changes that can be seen with prolonged exposure to beryllium which is an alkaline earth metal that is used in many different industrial applications. Epidemiology It is reported to occur in 2-5% ...
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Schizencephaly

Schizencephaly is a rare cortical malformation that manifests as a grey matter lined cleft extending from the ependyma to the pia mater. Terminology Some authors do not use the term schizencephaly, preferring to group these disorders under the blanket term of porencephaly. For the purpose of t...
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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstructions are common and account for 20% of admissions with "surgical abdomens". Radiology is important in confirming the diagnosis and identifying the underlying cause. Bowel obstructions are usually divided according to where the obstruction occurs, and since imaging appearances, und...
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Abdominal adhesions

Abdominal adhesions are bands of scar tissue (fibrous or fibrofatty), most often occurring as a complication of previous abdominal surgery. Pathology Adhesions often occur with multiple abdominal operations or previous postoperative intra-abdominal complications history of intra-abdominal infla...
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Small bowel obstruction

Small bowel obstruction (SBO) accounts for 80% of all mechanical intestinal obstruction, and the remaining 20% results from a large bowel obstruction. It has a mortality rate of ~5%. Clinical presentation The classical presentation is cramping abdominal pain and abdominal distension with nause...
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Empyema necessitans

Empyema necessitans (also sometimes spelled as empyema necessitatis) refers to the extension of an empyema out of the pleural space and into the neighboring chest wall and surrounding soft tissues. Pathology It may either occur due to the virulence of the organism or may be facilitated by prev...
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Chylous ascites

Chylous ascites (also known as chyloperitoneum) is defined as the abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of milky lymphatic fluid with a triglyceride level >110 mg/dL 1. Etiologically it is due to a disruption of the lymphatic system, most commonly obstructive due to a mass or traumatic (which ma...
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Anatomy of an article

The anatomy of an article describes the component parts of any article at Radiopaedia.org. All articles include a title, the main content, references and other attributes. Title The title of the article may seem obvious, but some considerations as to consistency are required. We use sentence c...
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Otosyphilis

Otosyphilis, otic syphilis or syphilitic labyrinthitis is a manifestation of neurosyphilis affecting the inner ear. For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer to the article on syphilis.  Pathology The pathological features of syphilitic laby...
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Neurosyphilis

Neurosyphilis results from infection of the central nervous system by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, subspecies pallidum. The disease has a heterogeneous spectrum of early and late manifestations. For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific manifestations, please refer ...
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False vocal cords

The false vocal cords (vestibular folds, ventricular folds, ventricular bands) are paired shelf-like structures located within the supraglottic larynx that divide the laryngeal vestibule above from the laryngeal ventricle below. They function to protect the airway and play very little if any par...
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Intrinsic muscles of the larynx

The intrinsic muscles of the larynx can be considered in two groups: muscles that control the inlet of the larynx muscles that move the vocal ligaments Gross anatomy Muscles of the inlet aryepiglottic muscle: lies within the aryepiglottic fold, runs from the side of the epiglottis and inser...

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