Articles

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16,804 results found
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Neurogenic bladder

Neurogenic bladder is a term applied to a dysfunctional urinary bladder that results from any lack of coordination between the central nervous system and the somatic nervous system 5, including injuries to the central or peripheral nerves that control and regulate urination. Injury to the brain,...
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Pine cone bladder

A pine cone bladder or Christmas tree bladder is a cystographic appearance in which the bladder is elongated and pointed with a thickened, trabeculated wall. It is typically seen in severe neurogenic bladder with increased sphincter tone (detrusor sphincter dyssynergia) due to suprasacral lesion...
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Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma (staging)

Esophageal and esophagogastric junction squamous cell carcinoma staging refers to TNM staging of squamous cell carcinoma originating in the esophagus or esophagogastric junction (including tumors whose center is within the proximal 2 cm of the gastric cardia). Related histologies included in th...
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Esophageal carcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is globally the 7th most common cancer and 6th most common cause of cancer-related death as per NCCN version 3.2023. It tends to present with increasing dysphagia, initially to solids and progressing to liquids as the tumor increases in size, obstructing the lumen of the eso...
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Cortical superficial siderosis

Cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) refers to deposition of hemosiderin along the leptomeninges and subpial surfaces, localized to the cortical sulci, as a sequela of convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Terminology Cortical superficial siderosis is a supratentorial pathology and should not be c...
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Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH), also known as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage, are subarachnoid hemorrhages that occur within the cortical sulci of the brain. Epidemiology Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage accounts for approximately 6% of all subarachnoid hemorrhage 7. Pathology T...
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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid artery stenosis, also known as extracranial carotid artery stenosis, is usually caused by an atherosclerotic process and is one of the major causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA).  This article refers to stenosis involving the carotid bulb and the proximal segment of inte...
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Anterior cerebral artery

The anterior cerebral artery (ACA), along with the middle cerebral artery (MCA) forms at the termination of the internal carotid artery (ICA). It is the smaller of the two and arches anteromedially to pass anterior to the genu of the corpus callosum, dividing as it does so into its two major bra...
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Lymphangioleiomyomatosis

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a low-grade destructive metastasizing PEComatous tumor 1 resulting from the proliferation of LAM cells in the lung, kidney and axial lymphatics. The disease is caused by mutations of the TSC2 or TSC1 genes and is more commonly sporadic rather than inherited. Cys...
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Pulmonary cavities

Pulmonary cavities are thick-walled abnormal gas-filled spaces within the lung. They are usually associated with a nodule, mass, or area of consolidation. A fluid level within the space may be present. Plain radiography and CT form the mainstay of imaging. Terminology According to the Fleischn...
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Pulmonary infarction

Pulmonary infarction is one of the key complications of pulmonary embolism (PE).  Epidemiology Pulmonary infarction occurs in the minority (10-15%) of patients with PE 1. Although in a necropsy study of those with lethal PE, 60% of cases developed infarction 2. Until recently it was felt that...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (L)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter L and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Neuroblastoma (craniocerebral metastases)

Craniocerebral neuroblastoma metastases usually involve the calvaria, orbits, skull base and dura. This should not be confused with primary CNS neuroblastoma, FOXR2-activated that, in contrast, usually arise from the cerebral hemispheres 5.  Please refer to the article neuroblastoma for a gene...
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Hutchinson syndrome

Hutchinson syndrome is a seldom-used term to denote a syndromic presentation of children with craniocerebral neuroblastoma metastases. Terminology Unfortunately, there is a lack of consensus in the definition with two descriptions most commonly encountered in the literature: limping and irrit...
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Genu varum

Genu varum (bow legs) denotes the varus angular deformity of the knee joint, where the leg is bowing outwards at the knee, while the lower leg is angled medially. Pathology Genu varum is physiologic in neonates and infants and reaches its peak between 6 to 12 months. During normal growth the t...
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Genu valgum

Genu valgum (layperson term: knock-knee) denotes the valgus deformity of the knee, where the lower leg is bending outwards in relation to the axis of the femur. Pathology Etiology Systemic conditions (e.g vitamin D deficiency) most commonly result in bilateral, whilst focal lesions (e.g. phys...
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Sternoclavicular joint (ultrasound)

The sternoclavicular (SC) joint is located at the base of the neck, where the clavicle meets the sternum. This joint is one of the four joints that complete the shoulder complex, providing significant mobility and stability to the shoulder region. Indications evaluation of joint pain or swelli...
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Sternoclavicular joint

The sternoclavicular joint is a synovial joint between the medial clavicle, manubrium and the first costal cartilage that joins the upper limb with the axial skeleton.  Gross anatomy There are two non-congruent articular surfaces forming a saddle joint 3: medial clavicle: larger of the two c...
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Macrophthalmia

The increased globe size or macrophthalmia has several etiological differentials: buphthalmos (congenital glaucoma) axial myopia macrophthalmos in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) connective tissue disorders: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Focal enlargement: staphyloma coloboma Se...
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Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis

Perianeurysmal retroperitoneal fibrosis is a subtype of a spectrum of retroperitoneal fibrosis. It is characterized by association with an inflammatory aneurysm, adventitial and periadventitial inflammation, medial thinning and chronic retroperitoneal inflammatory process which is associated wit...

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