Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,795 results found
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Giant cell glioblastoma

Giant cell glioblastoma is a classic variant of glioblastoma (along with epithelioid glioblastoma and gliosarcoma) and although not distinct diagnoses, they continue to be recognized in the current (2021) WHO classification of CNS tumors 8. This tumor was previously called monstrocellular tumor ...
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Modic type endplate changes

Modic type endplate changes represent a classification for vertebral body endplate MRI signal changes, first described in 1988 1. It is widely recognized by radiologists and clinicians and is a useful shorthand for reporting MRIs of the spine. Recently Modic type 1 has received renewed attentio...
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Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis, (rare plural: spondylodiscitides) also referred to as discitis-osteomyelitis, is characterized by infection involving the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebrae. Terminology In adults, the use of the term discitis is generally discouraged as isolated infection of the spin...
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Normal facial nerve enhancement on MRI

The normal facial nerve (CN VII) can demonstrate some enhancement post gadolinium, with the prevalence of which segments is highly variable depending on the MRI sequence 4-8. Enhancement may be asymmetric 4-6. It has been attributed to the circumneural facial arteriovenous plexus. Typical sites...
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Computed radiography

Computed radiography (CR) is the use of photostimulable phosphor as an image receptor. The image receptor is held in a similar casing (cassette) to that of the traditional film screen. Computed radiography harnesses the absorption of radiation, trapping electrons at energy levels via the process...
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PET-MRI

PET-MRI is a hybrid imaging technique utilizing the functional uptake information of positron emission tomography (PET) with the anatomical and soft tissue detail of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Early systems were tested in the late 2000s with commercial availability from 2010 1,2. The ava...
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Cochlear aplasia

Cochlear aplasia, or complete absence of the cochlea is a rare anomaly which accounts for only 3% of cochlear malformations. Radiographic features complete absence of the cochlea. Dense otic bone is seen at the anatomical site of the cochlea 2 cochlear nerve canal and cochlear nerve are absen...
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Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a heterogeneous group of autoimmune polyradiculopathies, involving sensory, motor, and autonomic nerves. It is the most common cause of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis. It is believed to be one of a number of related conditions, sharing a similar underlying...
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Methanol poisoning

Methanol poisoning is a cause of an acute toxic leukoencephalopathy that also has eventual chronic sequelae.  Epidemiology Methanol is found in a variety of consumer products including perfumes, model aircraft and car fuels, windshield washing solutions, carburator cleaners, solid cooking fuel...
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Completed editorial projects

Editorial projects, as a concept, were launched at the end of 2015, although similar projects had been run sporadically before then. These are targeted to particular topics or type of content and are aimed at ensuring that our content is kept clean and up to date. Naturally, these represent a me...
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Duret hemorrhage

Duret hemorrhages are small, usually multiple, hemorrhages in the midbrain or pons resulting from rapidly developing brain herniation, especially central herniation. They generally have a dismal prognosis. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation from Duret hemorrhages is difficult to d...
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Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the hypopharynx is relatively uncommon, carries the worst prognosis of any head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and is a challenge to diagnose and treat.  Hypopharyngeal carcinoma is relatively uncommon representing only 10% of all proximal aerodigesti...
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Intracerebral hemorrhage

An intracerebral hemorrhage, or intraparenchymal cerebral hemorrhage, is a subset of an intracranial hemorrhage as well as of stroke, defined by the acute accumulation of blood within the brain parenchyma. This article concerns non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhages; traumatic hemorrhagic cere...
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Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage

Lobar intracerebral hemorrhage is a subtype of intracerebral hemorrhage defined by their location in the peripheral cerebral hemispheres. Compared to deep intracerebral hemorrhages (involving the deep grey nuclei or brainstem), lobar hemorrhages are less likely to be related to hypertension and ...
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Basal ganglia hemorrhage

Basal ganglia hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage, and usually result from poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although they also have other causes. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see cerebr...
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Thalamic hemorrhage

Thalamic hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage, and usually are a result of poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although also have other causes. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see cerebral mic...
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Pontine hemorrhage

Pontine hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage, and usually are a result of poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although also have other causes. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see cerebral micr...
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Cerebellar hemorrhage

Cerebellar hemorrhages are a common form of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and usually occur due to poorly controlled long-standing hypertension, although other causes also exist. When due to chronic hypertension, the stigmata of chronic hypertensive encephalopathy are often present (see: cerebr...
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Remote cerebellar hemorrhage

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage is a relatively benign complication of supratentorial craniotomy, spinal surgery, lumbar puncture and insertion of a lumboperitoneal shunt 1,2,9. It is called "remote" as the cerebellar hemorrhage is far from the location of the surgery.  Epidemiology A rare compli...
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Jet hematoma

A jet or flame-shaped hemorrhage is a term sometimes used to describe an intraparenchymal hematoma adjacent to a ruptured arterial vascular malformation, such as aneurysms (most common) or dural arteriovenous fistulae or arteriovenous malformations 1,2. It usually is seen in combination with sub...

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