Articles

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16,803 results found
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Niemann-Pick disease type C

Niemann-Pick disease type c (NPD-C or just NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder classed under Niemann-Pick disease on account of clinical similarities, namely hepatosplenomegaly and variable involvement of the central nervous system.  Epidemiology NPD-C is inherited as an ...
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Orbital dermoid cyst

Orbital dermoid cysts are congenital lesions representing closed sacs lined by an ectodermal epithelium and comprising the most common orbital mass in children. They are typically divided into deep (within the orbit) and superficial (adjacent to the orbital rim). Epidemiology They comprise ~2%...
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DICER1 syndrome

DICER1 syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder predisposing individuals to the development of multiple tumor types. Epidemiology DICER1 syndrome most commonly manifests in children, adolescents and young adults 8. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation will depend on the pa...
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Labeled imaging anatomy cases

This article lists a series of labeled imaging anatomy cases by body region and modality. Brain CT head: non-contrast axial CT head: non-contrast coronal CT head: non-contrast sagittal CT head: non-contrast axial with clinical questions CT head: angiogram axial CT head: angiogram coronal ...
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Plexiform neurofibroma

Plexiform neurofibroma is an uncommon variant of neurofibroma, a benign tumor of peripheral nerves (WHO grade I), arising from a proliferation of all neural elements. Plexiform neurofibromas are essentially pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Unlike small sporadic localized neurofib...
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Physiologic periostitis

Physiologic periostitis describes the normal presence of smooth bilateral diaphyseal periosteal new bone in the humeri, femora, or tibiae of infants aged 1 to 6 months. It can be observed in both preterm and term infants. The etiology is unclear but may simply relate to rapid growth.   Radiogra...
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Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) or Unicompartmental Knee Replacement (UKR) is an orthopedic procedure where a single articular surface of the femorotibial joint is replaced by both tibial and femoral prosthetic components 1. The term UKA or UKR is reserved to describe the replacement of...
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Coracoid process

The coracoid process is a hook-like process on the superolateral edge of the scapula that projects anterolaterally. Gross anatomy Attachments muscles: coracobrachialis from the medial apex short head of biceps brachii from the lateral apex pectoralis minor from the medial and upper part l...
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Pulmonary cyst

Pulmonary cysts are round, thin-walled, low attenuation spaces/lucencies in the lung. Lung cysts usually contain air but occasionally also contain fluid or solid material 5. Epidemiology They are generally seen in patients >40 years of age and are associated with a low BMI 9. Pathology In co...
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Coronary artery bypass graft

A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG or CAG) is placed during a surgical procedure to increase blood flow to the myocardium due to coronary stenoses, usually caused by coronary artery disease. Arteries or veins can be grafted during this procedure. Long term outcome of coronary artery bypass gr...
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Medulloblastoma, SHH-activated

Medulloblastoma, sonic hedgehog (SHH) activated tumors are malignant tumors of the central nervous system. They are the second most common medulloblastoma group, divided according to TP53 mutation status into TP53-wildtype and TP53-mutant that are distinct entities differing in their molecular, ...
Article

Carbon monoxide transfer coefficient

Carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (often abbreviated as KCO) is a parameter often performed as part of pulmonary function tests. It is also often written as DLCO/VA (diffusing capacity per liter of lung volume) and is an index of the efficiency of alveolar transfer of carbon monoxide. Interp...
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Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction

Anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, also known as pancreaticobiliary maljunction, describes the abnormal junction of the pancreatic duct and common bile duct that occurs outside the duodenal wall to form a long common channel. Epidemiology The incidence varies from 1.5% to 3.2% 11. The esti...
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Frontal mucocele

A frontal mucocele is a paranasal sinus mucocele in a frontal sinus and is the most common location of all the paranasal sinus mucoceles 1. Clinical presentation Mucocoeles in the frontal sinus may be asymptomatic with insidious onset or present with headaches 2 and facial pain. Forehead (supr...
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Broca aphasia

Broca aphasia, also known as expressive aphasia or motor aphasia, is a type of non-fluent aphasia thought to be caused by injury (e.g. stroke) to Broca's area and the surrounding frontal fields 1,2, although there is controversy regarding the exact localization that leads to Broca aphasia 3. Cl...
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Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a rare autosomal recessive spastic ataxia initially identified in the region of Charlevoix-Saguenay, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Epidemiology Although initially described in Canada, ARSACS has since been reported in o...
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Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is an autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by defects in sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid synthesis. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation is highly variable with many potential neurological and other/systemic clinical features 6. ...
Article

Subaponeurotic fluid collection

Subaponeurotic fluid collections are a rare cause of head swelling in young neonates. They are thought to be due to birth trauma from assisted delivery, e.g. prolonged assisted delivery or ventouse delivery, with associated microfistula development that leads to CSF leakage. Delayed subaponeuro...
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Heart sign (medulla)

The heart sign, also known as the AirPod sign, is a radiological sign described in bilateral medial medullary ischemic stroke. Bilateral medial medullary stroke is a very rare location for stroke and can occur due to disease of the basilar artery, vertebral arteries, or anterior spinal artery 1,...
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Heart sign (disambiguation)

The heart is named in a number of radiological signs: boot-shaped heart in plain radiography of tetralogy of Fallot 1 broken heart sign in CT of incudomalleolar disarticulation 2 earth-heart sign in plain chest radiography of tension pneumomediastinum 3 heart sign in MRI brain of bilateral m...

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