Articles

Articles are a collaborative effort to provide a single canonical page on all topics relevant to the practice of radiology. As such, articles are written and continuously improved upon by countless contributing members. Our dedicated editors oversee each edit for accuracy and style. Find out more about articles.

16,914 results
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Neurocysticercosis

Neurocysticercosis is caused by the CNS infection with the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which is endemic in most low-income countries where pigs are raised. This form of cysticercosis is a relevant cause of seizures in endemic areas. Epidemiology The disease is endemic in Central and South Ame...
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Non-ketotic hyperglycemic hemichorea

Non-ketotic hyperglycemic hemichorea (NHH), also known as diabetic striatopathy or chorea, hyperglycemia, basal ganglia (C-H-BG) syndrome, is a rare neurological complication of non-ketotic hyperglycemia, along with non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma and non-ketotic hyperglycemic seizures. It is a ca...
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Diverticulum

Diverticula are outpouchings of a hollow viscus and can be either true or false. Occasionally a diverticulum is used in a more general sense to mean the outpouching of other anatomical structures, e.g. frontal intersinus septal cells are hypothesized to form as diverticula from the frontal sinu...
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Killian-Jamieson diverticulum

Killian-Jamieson diverticula are esophageal diverticula. Like the more common Zenker diverticulum, it is a false diverticulum and represents an outpouching of mucosa through a muscular defect (in this case the Killian-Jamieson space 2).  Pathology They are located just below the cricopharyngeu...
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Esophageal diverticulum

Esophageal diverticula are sac or pouch projections arising from the esophagus. Epidemiology They can occur in all ages but more frequent in adults and elderly people. Pathology Esophageal diverticula are either: true diverticula: include all esophageal layers false diverticula: contain on...
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Zenker diverticulum

Zenker diverticulum, also known as a pharyngeal pouch, is a posterior outpouching of the hypopharynx, just proximal to the upper esophageal sphincter through a weakness in the muscle layer called the Killian dehiscence. Epidemiology More than 50% of the affected patients present in 60-80 years...
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Cystic adenomyosis

Cystic adenomyosis is a rare variant of adenomyosis and is believed to be the result of repeated focal hemorrhages resulting in cystic spaces filled with altered blood products. Radiographic features MRI MRI is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for this diagnosis and will demon...
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Urethral diverticulum

Urethral diverticula, or urethroceles, are focal outpouchings of the urethra. They should not be confused with a ureterocele of the distal ureter. Epidemiology Urethral diverticula occur far more frequently in women than in men and are estimated to occur in 1-6% of women, especially those with...
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Brainstem glioma

Brainstem gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group that varies greatly in histology and prognosis. Unless otherwise specified, the term brainstem glioma usually refers to the most common histology of a diffuse midline glioma H3 K27-altered although many other gliomas can be encountered in the br...
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Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct

Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNBD) is a preinvasive biliary tree neoplasm considered to be a precursor of cholangiocarcinoma.  Terminology Biliary papillary adenoma and non-invasive papillary carcinoma of the biliary tract were terms used to refer to localized low-grade an...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (I)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter I and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep both the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q...
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Medical abbreviations and acronyms (M)

This article contains a list of commonly used medical abbreviations and acronyms that start with the letter M and may be encountered in medicine and radiology (please keep the main list and any sublists in alphabetic order). A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R ...
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Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity

Avulsion fractures of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity or styloid process are one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and account for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Terminology The terms ‘tuberosity’ and ‘styloid process’ are synonyms and refer to the portion of th...
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Bouchard node

Bouchard nodes are a clinical sign relating to bony nodules of the proximal interphalangeal joints and are much less common than Heberden nodes. They generally (but not always) correspond to palpable osteophytes. Clinical presentation They are sometimes painful, and are typically associated wi...
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Erosive osteoarthritis

Erosive (inflammatory) osteoarthritis is a form of hand osteoarthritis (OA) where, as the name implies, there is an additional erosive/inflammatory component. Epidemiology There is marked female predilection (F:M ~12:1), typically presenting in the postmenopausal patient. Clinical presentatio...
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Heberden node

Heberden nodes are a clinical examination sign related to the hands, most commonly found at the dorsolateral aspect of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) and are a moderate-to-strong marker of osteoarthritis 1,2.   Previously, Heberden nodes and DIP osteophytes were thought to be synonymou...
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Popliteal artery

The popliteal artery is the direct continuation of the superficial femoral artery, at the point where it exits the adductor canal at the adductor hiatus, and passes into the popliteal fossa as the vessel courses posteriorly behind the knee. Summary origin: continuation of the superficial femor...
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Line focus principle

The line focus principle in radiography explains the relationship between the actual focal spot on the anode surface and the effective focal spot size. Basic concept The focal spot is the area of the target upon which the electron beam strikes. The energy of the electrons in the electron beam ...
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Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019)

The Bosniak classification of cystic renal masses (version 2019), or usually simply Bosniak classification v2019, is an update of the Bosniak criteria published in 2005. Usage The Bosniak classification version referred to international guidelines is variable, with the 2022 European and Canad...
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Renal cell carcinoma

Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) (historically also known as hypernephroma or Grawitz tumor) are primary malignant adenocarcinomas derived from the renal tubular epithelium and are the most common malignant renal tumor. They usually occur in 50-70-year old patients and macroscopic hematuria occurs in...

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