Articles

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16,914 results
Article

Elbow dislocation

Elbow dislocation is the second most common large joint dislocation in adults and the most common in children.  Epidemiology Elbow dislocations are common and account for 10-25% of all elbow injuries in the adult population 1. They are the most common dislocation in children 4. Associations ...
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Olecranon fracture

Olecranon fractures are clinically and radiographically obvious, and usually require open reduction and internal fixation. Mechanism Olecranon fractures occur as the result of one of four mechanisms 2: direct blow (or fall directly on the elbow) fall on outstretched hand with elbow flexed a...
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Radial neck fracture

Radial neck fractures are, together with the radial head fractures, relatively common injuries, especially in adults, although they can be occult on radiographs.  Pathology Radial neck fractures are almost always the result of a fall onto an outstretched hand. Force applied along the radius re...
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Medial epicondyle fracture

Medial epicondyle fractures represent almost all epicondyle fractures and occur when there is avulsion of the medial epicondyle. They are typically seen in children and can be challenging to identify. Failure to diagnose these injuries can lead to significant long term disability.  Epidemiology...
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Lateral humeral condyle fracture

Lateral humeral condyle fractures also referred to simply as lateral condyle fractures (in the appropriate context), are relatively common elbow fractures that predominantly occur in children. They may be subtle but are hugely important to diagnose promptly because if they are missed, they tend ...
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Monteggia fracture-dislocation

Monteggia fracture-dislocations consist of a fracture of the ulnar shaft with concomitant dislocation of the radial head. The ulnar fracture is usually obvious, whereas the radial head dislocation can be overlooked, with potentially serious functional and medico-legal ramifications.  Mechanism ...
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Radial head dislocation

Radial head dislocation occurs when the radial head is displaced from its normal articulation with the ulna and the humerus. The dislocation may be acquired or congenital (see the separate article on congenital radial head dislocation). Additionally, radial head dislocation should be distinguis...
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Fall onto an outstretched hand

Fall onto an outstretched hand (FOOSH) is a common mechanism for traumatic disruption of the osseous and ligamentous structures of the wrist, forearm and elbow. Some commonly recognized patterns of injury include; distal radial fractures Colles fracture Smith fracture Barton fracture Chauff...
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Posterior fat pad sign (elbow)

The posterior fat pad sign is the visualization of a lucent crescent of fat located in the olecranon fossa on a true lateral view of an elbow joint with the elbow flexed at a right angle indicating an elbow joint effusion1. Normally, the posterior fat pad will not be seen in this view 2.  In th...
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Gliomatosis cerebri

Gliomatosis cerebri is an uncommon growth pattern of diffuse gliomas that involves at least three lobes by definition, has frequent bilateral growth and may extend to infratentorial structures 8. There often is an important discordance between clinical and radiological findings, as it may be cli...
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Supracondylar humeral fracture

Supracondylar humeral fractures, often simply referred to as supracondylar fractures, are a classic pediatric injury which requires vigilance as imaging findings can be subtle. Epidemiology Simple supracondylar fractures are typically seen in younger children, and are uncommon in adults; 90% a...
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Anterior humeral line

The anterior humeral line is key to demonstrating normal elbow alignment and should be used whenever reading a pediatric elbow radiograph to exclude a subtle supracondylar fracture. Measurement A line drawn down the anterior surface of the humerus should intersect the middle third of the capit...
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Radiocapitellar line

The radiocapitellar line is one of the key lines used to assess alignment on the elbow radiograph. It is particularly useful in the pediatric setting. Measurement A line drawn down the neck of the radius should intersect the capitellum. It is important to ensure that you draw the line down the...
Article

Ossification centers of the elbow

There are six ossification centers of the elbow that appear and develop in a relatively reproducible fashion, and are key to assessment of the pediatric elbow radiograph. Timing of their appearance varies in the literature but an approximation is given below. A useful mnemonic to remember the or...
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Pediatric elbow (lateral view)

The lateral elbow view for pediatrics is part of a two view elbow series, examining the distal humerus, proximal radius and ulna. Indications The projection is the orthogonal view of the AP elbow allowing for examination of the ulna-trochlear joint, coronoid process, and the olecranon process....
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Elbow series (pediatric)

The elbow series for pediatrics is a set of radiographs taken to investigate elbow joint pathology, often in the context of trauma. It usually comprises an anteroposterior and lateral projection in order to minimize radiation dose to the patient. Depending on the department and clinical indicati...
Article

Habenula

The habenula is located anterolaterally to the pineal gland, posteromedial to the thalamus and is part of the epithalamus. It measures 5 to 9 mm in size 1,3. The habenula has traditionally been divided into lateral (limbic) and medial (motor) parts, although the lateral part can be further divid...
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Pediatric elbow radiograph (an approach)

Pediatric elbow radiographs are commonly encountered in the emergency department and, when approached in a systematic fashion, are not as difficult to interpret as most people think! Systematic review Ossification Check that the ossification centers are present and in the correct position. Th...
Article

Pectoralis major muscle

The pectoralis major muscle is a large fan-shaped muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but often considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin: medial clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages, and external oblique aponeurosis insertion: lateral l...
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Avulsion fracture of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity

Avulsion fractures of the 5th metatarsal tuberosity or styloid process are one of the more common foot avulsion injuries and account for over 90% of fractures of the base of the 5th metatarsal. Terminology The terms ‘tuberosity’ and ‘styloid process’ are synonyms and refer to the portion of th...

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