Items tagged “abr certifying ultrasound”

34 results found
Article

Cervical ectopic pregnancy

Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare subtype of ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology  It accounts for ~0.15-1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Pathology Implantation of the fertilized ovum occurs within the cervix rather than the uterine cavity. Unless the fetal heart rate can be identified, it is di...
Article

Crown rump length

Crown rump length (CRL) is the length of the embryo or fetus from the top of its head to bottom of torso. It is the most accurate estimation of gestational age in early pregnancy, because there is little biological variability at that time. Measurement CRL is measured as the largest dimension ...
Article

Double decidual sac sign

The double decidual sac sign (DDSS) is a useful feature on early pregnancy ultrasound to confirm an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) when the yolk sac or embryo is still not visualised. It consists of the decidua parietalis (lining the uterine cavity) and decidua capsularis (lining the gestati...
Article

Early pregnancy

Early pregnancy roughly spans the first ten weeks of the first trimester. Radiographic features Antenatal ultrasound  0-4.3 weeks: no ultrasound findings 4.3-5.0 weeks:  possible small gestational sac possible double decidual sac sign (DDSS) possible intradecidual sac sign (IDSS) 5.1-5.5...
Article

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of a fertilised ovum outside of the uterine cavity. Epidemiology The overall incidence has increased over the last few decades and is currently thought to affect 1-2% of pregnancies. The risk is as high as 18% for first trimester pregnancies with bl...
Article

Gestational sac

The gestational sac (GS) is the first sign of early pregnancy on ultrasound and can be seen with endovaginal ultrasound at approximately 3-5 weeks gestation when the mean sac diameter (MSD) would approximately measure 2-3 mm in diameter. A true gestational sac can be distinguished from a pseudo...
Article

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy

Interstitial ectopic pregnancy, also known as intramural ectopic pregnancy, is an important type of ectopic pregnancy with higher risks of rupture and haemorrhage compared to usual tubal ectopic pregnancies.  Terminology The term interstitial pregnancy is sometimes interchangeably used with co...
Article

Mean sac diameter

Mean sac diameter (MSD) is a sonographic measurement of the gestational sac which is usually first seen at around 3 weeks after conception (5 weeks after the last menstrual period), when it measures 2-3 mm. MSD = (length + height + width)/3 Normal MSD (in mm) + 30 = days of pregnancy Role of ...
Article

Nuchal translucency

Nuchal translucency is the normal fluid-filled subcutaneous space identified at the back of the fetal neck during the late first trimester and early second trimester (11.3-13.6 weeks). It should not be confused with the nuchal fold, which is seen in the second trimester.   Pathology Increased...
Article

Pseudogestational sac

A pseudogestational sac, also known as a pseudosac or intra-cavitary fluid, is the concept that a small amount of intrauterine fluid in the setting of a positive pregnancy test and abdominal pain could be erroneously interpreted as a true gestational sac in ectopic pregnancy. The sign was origi...
Article

Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Tubal ectopic pregnancy (or adnexal ectopic pregnancy) is the most common location of an ectopic pregnancy. Epidemiology It is the most common type of ectopic by far, accounting for 93-97% of cases. Pathology Although the fallopian tube has many anatomical parts, for the purposes of ectopic ...
Article

Intrauterine contraceptive device

Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) are one of the most frequently used methods of contraception throughout the world. It prevents pregnancy by: thinning the endometrial lining preventing sperm motility preventing implantation There are two main types of IUCDs: non-hormonal metallic (...
Article

Intradecidual sac sign

Intradecidual sac sign (IDSS) is a useful feature in identifying an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) as early as 25 days of gestation 1. The threshold level (earliest one can see the sign) is 24 days of gestation and the discriminatory level (one should always see the sac) is 47 days. As per t...
Article

First trimester

The first trimester is defined as the first 13 weeks of pregnancy following the last normal menstrual period (some authors refer to early pregnancy as 0-10 weeks). It can be divided into a number of phases, each of which has typical clinical issues. These phases are: conceptus phase: 3-5 weeks ...
Article

Yolk sac

Yolk sac is the first anatomical structure identified within the gestational sac. It plays a critical role in embryonal development by providing nutrients, serving as the site of initial haematopoiesis, providing endocrine, metabolic and immunological functions and contributing to the developmen...
Article

Failed early pregnancy

Failed early pregnancy refers to the death of the embryo and therefore, miscarriage. The most common cause of embryonic death is a chromosomal abnormality. Radiographic features Ultrasound Findings diagnostic of pregnancy failure crown-rump length (CRL) of ≥7 mm and no heartbeat on a transva...
Article

Testicular microlithiasis

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition that represents the deposition of multiple tiny calcifications throughout both testes.  The most common criterion for diagnosis is that of five microcalcifications in one testicle, although definitions have varied in the past. In t...
Article

Ovarian torsion

Ovarian torsion, also sometimes termed adnexal torsion or tubo-ovarian torsion, refers to rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supplying vascular pedicle.  It can be intermittent or sustained and results in venous, arterial and lymphatic stasis. It is a gynaecological ...
Article

Tubo-ovarian abscess

Tubo-ovarian abscesses are one of the late complications of pelvic inflammatory disease. Epidemiology Risk factors Risk factors include 15: previous diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease 16 presence of intrauterine device multiple sexual partners diabetes mellitus immunocompromised st...
Article

Ovarian ectopic pregnancy

Ovarian ectopic pregnancies are rare (1-3%) when compared to other types of ectopic pregnancy such as tubal ectopic.  Pathology Risk factors Risk factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, IUCD use, endometriosis,  in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer 3, and previous adnexal surgery 4. Pa...

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