Items tagged “anatomy”

126 results found


The scrotum is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that contains the testes, epididymides, and spermatic cord. It consists of two chambers separated by a septum  It is an extension of the perineum, and is located between the penis and anus. Gross anatomy The scrotal wall is compos...


The testes (singular "testis" or "testicle") are the male gonads and contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 cc volume at puberty 1. Norm...


The epididymis (plural: epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testes within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens. Gross anatomy The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to testes, with head, body ...


The fabella is an accessory ossicle typically found in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius. It occurs in ~20% (range 10-30%) of the population 1.  The fabella can also be fibrocartilaginous in nature and is occasionally found in the medial head of the gastrocnemius. The fabella articulates wi...

Horizontal fissure

The horizontal fissure (also called the minor fissure) is a unilateral structure in the right lung that separates the right middle lobe from the right upper lobe. Gross anatomy The horizontal fissure arises from the right oblique fissure and follows the 4th intercostal space from the sternum u...

Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location carpal bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from latera to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Catc...

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the brain or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foraminae rather than through the spine.  Cerebrum The first and second cranial nerves derive from the telencephalon and diencephalon respectively and...

Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up, Coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular n...

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...

Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the flexor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Dick...

Retroperitoneal organs (mnemonic)

A useful for mnemonic to remember which organs are retroperitoneal is: SAD PUCKER Mnemonic S: suprarenal (adrenal) gland A: aorta/IVC D: duodenum (second and third part) P: pancreas (except tail) U: ureters C: colon (ascending and descending) K: kidneys E: (o)esophagus R: rectum

Branches of internal iliac artery (mnemonic)

A useful mnemonic to remember the branches of the internal iliac artery is: I Love Going Places In My Very Own Underwear! Mnemonic I: iliolumbar artery L: lateral sacral artery G: gluteal (superior and inferior) arteries P: (internal) pudendal artery I: inferior vesical (uterine in female...

Femoral triangle boundaries (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for the boundaries of the femoral triangle is: SAIL This should be easy to remember because the femoral triangle is shaped like a sail.  Mnemonic S: sartorius A: adductor longus IL: inguinal ligament

Supra-acetabular fossa

A supra-acetabular fossa, also known as pseudodefect of acetabular cartilage, is an anatomic variant whereby a focal defect is evident within the subchondral bone of the acetabular roof. It is seen in as many as 10% of hips and is typically located at the 12 o'clock position both in the coronal ...


Prosencephalon or forebrain is one of the primary divisions of neural tube.  Later the forebrain further separates into the telencephalon (cerebrum) and diencephalon (thalamus and related structures). At about 8 weeks of intra-uterine life, the prosencephalon splits into two, which then forms ...

Coronal suture

The coronal suture is the cranial suture formed between the two parietal bones and the frontal bone. At the junction of coronal, sagittal and frontal sutures is the anterior fontanelle which is open at birth and usually fuses at around 18-24 months after birth. Fusion of the coronal suture occu...


The clavicle (or informally collar bone) is the only bone connecting the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton and is the only long bone that lies horizontally in human skeleton.  Gross anatomy Osteology The clavicle is roughly "S-shaped" with a flattened, concave, lateral one-third and a thi...

Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...

Supernumerary kidney

Supernumerary kidneys are a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital system, where there are one or two accessory kidneys. Epidemiology Less than 100 cases are documented.  Clinical presentation Patients may be asymptomatic. If present symptoms range from fever, pain to abdominal mass. Thes...

Male urethra

The male urethra is a fibromuscular tube that drains urine from the bladder. It has a longer, more complicated, course than the female urethra and is also more prone to pathology. Gross anatomy The male urethra measures, on average, 18-20 cm in length. It commences at the internal urethral ori...

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