Items tagged “anatomy”

133 results found

Buford complex

Buford complex is a congenital glenoid labrum variant where the anterosuperior labrum is absent in the 1-3 o'clock position and the middle glenohumeral ligament is thickened (cord-like) and originates directly from the superior labrum at the base of the biceps tendon and crosses the subscapulari...

Cavum vergae

The cavum vergae (CV), along with the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is a persistence of the embryological fluid-filled space between the leaflets of the septum pellucidum and is a common anatomical variant. The CV is sometimes referred to as the 6th ventricle 3.  Gross anatomy The CV is the po...

Cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are the 12 paired sets of nerves that arise from the cerebrum or brainstem and leave the central nervous system through cranial foramina rather than through the spine. The cranial nerves are numbered one to twelve using the Roman numerals, I to XII. Cerebrum The first and se...

Internal auditory canal nerves (mnemonic)

A mnemonic to remember the relative position of nerves inside the internal auditory canal (IAC) is: Seven up, Coke down Anatomy Four nerves pass through the IAC: facial nerve (CN VII) three components of the vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) cochlear nerve (CN VIIIc) superior vestibular n...

Dura mater

The dura mater, also known as the pachymeninx, is the tough outer layer of the meninges that surrounds the central nervous system and is pierced by the cranial nerves, the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries.  Intracranially it is formed by two layers: outer endosteal layer, c...


The liver is the largest abdominal organ that plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions, including glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification. It is one of the very few organs that has the ability to r...

Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or simply the medulla) is the most caudal part of the brainstem between the pons superiorly and spinal cord inferiorly. It is the transition from the spinal cord to the brain. The medulla contains the vital autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory centers controlling hear...

Intervertebral disc

Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebral bodies of C2/3 to L5/S1, totalling 23 in the conventional spine. Together they account for approximately 25% of the total height of the vertebral column. This decreases with age as disc height is lost. The upper thoracic discs are the thinn...

Müllerian duct anomalies

Müllerian duct anomalies (MDAs) are congenital abnormalities that occur when the Müllerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts) do not develop correctly. This may be as a result of complete agenesis, defective vertical or lateral fusion, or resorption failure. Epidemiology MDAs are estimated to occur...


The thymus is a T-cell producing lymphoid organ in the anterior mediastinum that plays a role in the development of the immune system, particular the maturation of T-cells. It typically has a retrosternal location and hence can mimic retrosternal pathology. Gross anatomy It is relatively large...

Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin It is a branch of the ascending aorta, with its normal origin in the right aortic sinus, just superior to the aortic valve Course The RCA courses to th...

Carpal bones (mnemonic)

Mnemonics of the carpal bone are numerous and useful for memorising the order and location of the bones. They usually describe the position of the carpal bones from lateral to medial in the proximal row and then the distal row: Sam Likes To Push The Toy Car Hard She Looks Too Pretty Try To Cat...

Anterior ankle tendons (mnemonic)

A mnemonic that refers to the order of the ankle tendons that pass under the extensor retinaculum of the ankle running from medial to lateral is: Tom Hates Dick Mnemonic T: tibialis anterior H: extensor hallucis longus D: extensor digitorum longus History and etymology The phrase Tom, Di...

Trigeminal nerve branches (mnemonic)

A mnemonic for remembering the names of the skull foramina that the division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) pass through is: Standing Room Only Mnemonic standing: superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve) room: foramen rotundum (maxillary division of trigeminal nerve...

Sternalis muscle

The sternalis muscle is an uncommon anatomic variant of the chest wall musculature and is of uncertain aetiology and function. Its importance lies in that it should not be mistaken for a pathological lesion.  Epidemiology Cadaveric studies have shown that the muscle is present in ~5% (range 1-...

Horizontal fissure

The horizontal fissure (also called the minor fissure) is a unilateral structure in the right lung that separates the right middle lobe from the right upper lobe. Gross anatomy The horizontal fissure arises from the right oblique fissure and follows the 4th intercostal space from the sternum u...

Hepatic veins

The hepatic veins are three large intraparenchymal veins which drain the liver substance into the inferior vena cava (IVC), named the right hepatic vein, middle hepatic vein and left hepatic vein. The veins are important landmarks, running in between and hence defining the segments of the liver....


The scrotum (plural: scrota or scrotums) is a dual-chambered protuberance of skin and muscle that contains the testes, epididymides, and spermatic cord. It consists of two chambers separated by a septum. It is an extension of the perineum, and is located between the penis and anus. Gross anatom...


The testes, also known as the testicles, are the male gonads and are contained within the scrotum. The testes are responsible for the production of sperm and testosterone. Gross anatomy At birth, testes measure approximately 1.5 cm (length) x 1 cm (width), reaching ~4 mL volume at puberty 1. ...


The epididymis (plural epididymides) is situated adjacent to the testis within the scrotal sac. Its primary function is the collection, maturation and transport of sperm via the ductus deferens. Gross anatomy The epididymis is an elongated structure, posterolateral to the testis. It can be sub...

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