Items tagged “barium swallow”

9 results
Article

Achalasia

Achalasia (primary achalasia) is a failure of organized esophageal peristalsis that causes impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter, resulting in food stasis and often marked dilatation of the esophagus.  Obstruction of the distal esophagus from other non-functional etiologies, not...
Article

Esophageal web

Esophageal webs refer to an esophageal constriction caused by a thin mucosal membrane projecting into the lumen. Epidemiology Esophageal webs tend to affect middle-aged females. Clinical presentation Patients are usually asymptomatic and the finding may be incidental and unimportant. However...
Article

Phrenic ampulla

The phrenic ampulla (also known as the esophageal vestibule) is the region between the A-ring and B-ring of the distal esophagus. The gastro-esophageal junction is below the ampulla (and gastric folds should not enter the region of the ampulla). Differential diagnosis The ampulla is more promi...
Article

Passavant cushion

The Passavant cushion or ridge is a small prominence in the posterior pharynx, formed from a focal bulge of the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscles during swallowing. The "cushion" opposes the soft palate during the act of swallowing and is part of the seal between soft palate and pharynx t...
Article

Esophageal myotomy

Esophageal myotomy (or Heller myotomy) is a procedure that can be performed to treat a lower esophageal sphincter that fails to relax (e.g. achalasia). The procedure involves a longitudinal incision of the distal esophageal musculature to break the sphincter tone. A fundoplication wrap can be p...
Article

Granular mucosal pattern of the esophagus (differential)

Granular mucosal pattern of the esophagus represents very fine nodularity of the esophageal mucosal surface. This finding is non-specific and may represent: reflux esophagitis (most common) Candida esophagitis glycogenic acanthosis Barrett esophagus superficial spreading esophageal carcinom...
Article

Glycogenic acanthosis

Glycogenic acanthosis is a benign finding on esophagography in elderly patients. Epidemiology It most commonly occurs in patients >40 years of age and incidence and numbers of lesions increase by age. No gender predilection exists. Typically patients are asymptomatic.  Pathology It occurs fr...
Article

Normal esophageal contours on barium swallow

There are a number of normal esophageal contours or impressions that are encountered when performing a barium swallow. It is important to be able to differentiate normal contours and their variants, as well as contours that may indicate disease. Below is a list of anatomical structures that may ...
Article

Water siphon test

The water siphon test may be performed as part of a barium swallow to assess for gastro-esophageal reflux. It is performed in the supine RPO position with the patient drinking water continuously. The test is said to be positive if there is visible barium reflux in the esophagus, and is more sens...