Items tagged “bone tumour”

33 results found
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Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign expansile osteoclastic giant cell-rich bony neoplasms, composed of numerous blood-filled channels and cystic spaces 1. ABC accounts for the 'A' in the popular mnemonic for lucent bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC. Terminology The terms 'giant cell reparative gran...
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Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcomas are malignant bone-forming tumors. They are the second most common primary bone tumor after multiple myeloma, accounting for ~20% of all primary bone tumors. In children, they are considered the most common primary bone tumor 12. They can be classified into primary and secondary fo...
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Giant cell tumor of bone

Giant cell tumors (GCT) of bone are locally aggressive and rarely malignant or metastasizing bony neoplasms, typically found at the end of long bones which is the region around the closed growth plate extending into the epiphysis and to the joint surface 1. They are classified as osteoclastic gi...
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Non-ossifying fibroma

Non-ossifying fibromas (NOF) are benign and generally self-limiting osteoclastic giant cell-rich bone tumors typically found in the metaphyses of long bones. They are classified as osteoclastic giant cell-rich bone tumors 1,2. NOFs account for the 'N' in the popular mnemonic for lucent bone les...
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Parosteal osteosarcoma

Parosteal osteosarcoma is a subtype of osteosarcoma and arises from the outer layer of the periosteum.  Epidemiology It is the most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma and accounts for ~4% of all osteosarcomas 1-3. It typically presents in early adulthood and middle age with a...
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Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a developmental benign medullary fibro-osseous process characterized by the failure to form mature lamellar bone and arrest as woven bone that can be multifocal. It can affect any bone and occur in a monostotic form involving only one bone or a polyostotic form involvin...
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Clear cell chondrosarcoma

Clear cell chondrosarcomas are low-grade malignant chondrogenic bone neoplasms of the epiphysis. The name derives from the presence of clear cell chondrocytes which contain abundant vacuolated cytoplasm due to the presence of glycogen. Epidemiology Clear cell chondrosarcomas make up around 2% ...
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Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma

Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (MCS) are rare highly malignant chondrosarcomas with a biphasic morphology of a primitive mesenchymal tumor and a well-differentiated cartilaginous component. Epidemiology Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas are rare tumors and make up for ~2-4% of all chondrosarcomas 1. Th...
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Myxoid chondrosarcoma

Myxoid chondrosarcomas are rare, intermediate grade subtype of chondrosarcoma (see chondrosarcoma grading). It is found in both bone and soft tissues (see extraskeletal chondrosarcoma). Epidemiology Typically affects patients in their 30s to 60s with a male predilection 3, 4. They may account ...
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Enchondroma vs low grade chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between enchondromas and low-grade conventional chondrosarcomas is a frequent difficulty as the lesions are both histologically and radiographically very similar. It is important to remember, though, that differentiating between them may be a moot point since both can either be c...
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Conventional chondrosarcoma

Conventional chondrosarcomas are locally aggressive and malignant cartilagineous or chondrogenic neoplasms and are the most common form of chondrosarcoma 1. Conventional chondrosarcomas can be primary or secondary and are traditionally categorized according to their location within the bone into...
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Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas (DCS) are malignant high-grade chondrosarcomas with a poor prognosis. They have a bi-morphic histomorphology of conventional chondrosarcoma and a non-cartilaginous high-grade sarcoma. Epidemiology Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas can develop in 10-15% of centra...
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Primary intraosseous hemangioma

Primary intraosseous hemangiomas, also known as hemangiomas of bone, are benign tumors of small and large caliber vascular channels arising within bone 4, seen most frequently in the vertebrae and next most frequently in the skull. Terminology Given their non-neoplastic nature, some authors re...
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Enchondroma

Enchondromas, also known as chondromas 7, are relatively common intramedullary hyaline cartilage neoplasms with benign imaging features. They share histologic features with low-grade chondrosarcoma and are sometimes classified under the umbrella term low-grade chondral series tumors. Enchondrom...
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Desmoplastic fibroma

Desmoplastic fibromas are extremely rare bone tumors that do not metastasize but may be locally aggressive. They are considered to be a bony counterpart of soft tissue desmoid tumors and are histologically identical.  Epidemiology Desmoplastic fibroma of bone is rare and mostly found in young ...
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Telangiectatic osteosarcoma

Telangiectatic osteosarcomas (TOS/TAEOS) are an uncommon variant of osteosarcoma 1-3.  Epidemiology Telangiectatic osteosarcomas make up for 2-12% of high-grade osteosarcomas with varying frequencies between studies 1-6. They have similar demographics to that of conventional osteosarcoma and t...
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Fallen fragment sign

The fallen fragment sign refers to the presence of a bone fracture fragment resting dependently in a cystic bone lesion. This finding was once thought to be pathognomonic for a simple (unicameral) bone cyst following a pathological fracture, although it has occasionally been reported with other ...
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Intraosseous lipoma

Intraosseous lipomas are rare benign lesions that account for about 0.1-2.5% of all bone tumors. They are, however, the most common lipogenic tumors in bone 6. Epidemiology Intraosseous lipomas can present in an extremely wide age range (5-85 years), but the peak age at discovery is usually in...
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Low grade central osteosarcoma

Low-grade central osteosarcomas (LGCOS) or well-differentiated intramedullary osteosarcomas are low-grade malignant bone-forming tumors typically arising within the intramedullary cavity of bone. Epidemiology Low-grade central osteosarcomas are uncommon and account for 1-2% of all osteosarcoma...
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Primary bone lymphoma

Primary bone (skeletal/osseous) lymphoma (PBL) is a less common manifestation of lymphoma than secondary involvement from disseminated lymphoma. It is rare, accounting for <5% of bone tumors and <1% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Terminology PBL is defined as the presence of lymphoma isolated to one...