Items tagged “brain”

17 results found
Article

Developmental venous anomaly

Developmental venous anomaly (DVA), also known as cerebral venous angioma, is a congenital malformation of veins which drain normal brain. They were thought to be rare before cross-sectional imaging but are now recognized as being the most common cerebral vascular malformation, accounting for ~5...
Article

Ependymoma

Ependymomas represent a relatively broad group of glial tumors most often arising from the lining the ventricles of the brain or the central canal of the spinal cord. They account for ~5% of all neuroepithelial neoplasms, ~10% of all pediatric brain tumors and up to 33% of brain tumors occurring...
Article

Obstructive hydrocephalus

Obstructive hydrocephalus is a term usually used to denote obstructive non-communicating hydrocephalus.  It is actually a term that causes confusion as used in the above sense implies that communicating hydrocephalus does not have an obstruction to CSF flow / absorption; this is not true as the...
Article

Pituitary apoplexy

Pituitary apoplexy is an acute clinical syndrome caused by either hemorrhagic or non-hemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland 2. Although variable, it typically comprises of headache, visual deficits, ophthalmoplegia, and altered mental status 7. An existing pituitary macroadenoma is usually ...
Article

Subependymoma

Subependymomas are uncommon, benign (WHO grade I) tumors which are slow growing and non-invasive. They tend to occur in middle-aged and older individuals and usually identified as an incidental finding.  Terminology These tumors were previously also known as subependymal astrocytomas, not to b...
Article

Calcarine fissure

The calcarine fissure, or calcarine sulcus, is located on the medial surface of the occipital lobe and divides the visual cortex (a.k.a. calcarine cortex) into two.  The fissure is variable in course (figure 1), but is generally oriented horizontally, anteriorly joining the parieto-occipital fi...
Article

Pituitary region mass with intrinsic high T1 signal

Pituitary region mass with an intrinsic high T1 signal, also referred as suprasellar hotspots, are relatively frequently encountered, and the presence of high T1 signal narrows the differential somewhat.  Differential diagnosis pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage/necrosis craniopharyngioma...
Article

Glutaric aciduria type 1

Glutaric aciduria type 1 is a leukodystrophy that can be subclassified as an organic acidopathy. It has a highly variable clinical presentation, and laboratory investigations are not always diagnostic. Imaging, therefore, has an important role to play as the MRI features can be characteristic. ...
Article

White matter tracts

White matter tracts in the brain, also known as white matter fibers, are classified into three categories: Projection tracts tracts connecting the cortex with other area in the CNS, e.g. deep nuclei, brainstem, cerebellum or spine may be efferent (motor) or afferent tracts (sensory) white ma...
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Acute vs chronic ischemic stroke

Differentiating between acute and chronic infarction on a CT brain is an important skill for many health professionals particularly in the emergency setting: pathology acute: cytotoxic edema chronic: encephalomalacia; Wallerian degeneration hypoattenuation acute: more dense than CSF chroni...
Article

Sandwich sign (Marchiafava-Bignami disease)

Sandwich sign of Marchiafava-Bignami disease is described as the appearance due to the involvement of central layers of the corpus callosum. T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities are seen in the central region of body and splenium of corpus callosum with sparing of peripheral dorsal and ventral layers ...
Article

Intracranial tumors (summary)

This is a basic article for medical students and other non-radiologists Intracranial tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors. In adult patients, the majority represent metastatic disease with a smaller proportion being primary brain tumors. Metastasis to the brain occurs, most commonly,...
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Precentral gyrus

The precentral gyrus, also known as the primary motor cortex, is a very important structure involved in executing voluntary motor movements.   Gross anatomy The precentral gyrus is a vertically oriented cerebral convolution situated in the posterior portion of the frontal lobe. It is located i...
Article

Premedullary cistern

The premedullary cistern is one of the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid cisterns. Gross anatomy It extends from the pontomedullary junction above to the foramen magnum below, between the lower clivus and anterior medulla. It is separated from the prepontine cistern above by the medial pontome...
Article

CT angiography of the cerebral arteries

CT angiography of the cerebral arteries is a noninvasive technique allows visualization of the internal and external carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and can include just the intracranial compartment or also extend down to the arch of the aorta. By using multidetector CT (MDCT) after int...
Article

Superior olivary nucleus

The superior olivary nuclei (or complex, SOC) are a group of nuclei within the pons contributing to the ascending and descending auditory pathways. Gross anatomy The superior olivary nuclei are located in the pons, while the inferior olivary nuclei are located in the medulla. It is generally s...
Article

Olive

The olive is the ventral oval prominence in the medulla oblongata which contains the inferior olivary nucleus, implicated in motor co-ordination. Gross anatomy The olive is a smooth ovoid prominence just below the pons. It is located in the superior medulla, lateral to the pyramid and ventrola...

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