Items tagged “breast”

62 results found
Article

Gestational and secretory hyperplasia

Gestational and secretory hyperplasia are pregnancy and lactation related physiological changes occurring in breast tissues. Pathology The normal physiology of pregnancy causes a lobular enlargement of terminal duct lobular units along with formation of new ones during the second month of gest...
Article

Gigantomastia

Gigantomastia (also known as macromastia or mammomegaly) is the term employed when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. It may be rarely unilateral. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterized by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or gl...
Article

Puerperal mastitis

Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
Article

Breast varix

Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast.  Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying etiology with the varices being a part of the ...
Article

Foramen of Langer

The foramen of Langer is a defect in the deep pectoralis fascia. It is a defect at the level of the third intercostal space, through which the upper lateral portion of the breast extends into the axilla forming the axillary tail of Spence.
Article

Subareolar abscess

Subareolar breast abscess are relatively uncommon and tend to occur mostly in young women.  Clinical presentation Mastalgia, signs of inflammation, lump formation in the subareolar region and nipple discharge. In chronic cases fistula formation and nipple deformity may be seen. Pathology Squ...
Article

Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex

The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inversion enlarged nipple Ben...
Article

Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola

Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola (NHNA) is a rare, idiopathic and benign dermatological condition. Epidemiology Most often seen in females of reproductive age, especially during 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Less than 70 cases have been reported till now. Clinical presentatio...
Article

Step-oblique mammography

Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Article

Caudal cranial projection

Caudal cranial projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique invert the C arm as for a CC projection step the patient forward and have her bend excessively forward at the waist to ensure that the abdomen does not encroach in the x ray field place the image receptor above the b...
Article

20° oblique projection

20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used in mammography, especially in young women and in follow-up patients. Technique The C-arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedial-inferolateral oblique. With the patient's feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slig...
Article

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection

Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
Article

Nipple adenoma

Nipple adenoma is a rare, benign breast lesion which often mimics a malignancy Clinical presentation  Patient presents with bloody discharge from an ulcerated and painful nipple in one breast. There is itching associated with this lesion. Symptoms may show variation with the menstrual cycle. T...
Article

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple

Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a relatively rare, benign dermal neoplasm of the areola and nipple. Clinical presentation Syringomatous adenomas of the nipple usually present as unilateral 1 to 3 cm firm lesion in the subareolar or nipple region of the breast. Tenderness, i...
Case

Unilateral breast hypoplasia

 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Rodrigo Horstmann Castilhos
Published 09 Apr 2014
60% complete
X-ray
Article

Breast cellulitis

Breast cellulitis is an acute pyogenic inflammatory change involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. This can be secondary to any wound, surgery or radiation for breast carcinoma. Clinical presentation inflammatory changes such as edema, swelling and redness of the involved breast  no def...
Case

Fibroadenoma: involuting with macrocalcification

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Giorgio M Baratelli
Published 27 May 2014
75% complete
Mammography
Case

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Giorgio M Baratelli
Published 25 Jul 2015
94% complete
MammographyPhotoUltrasoundPathology
Case

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the breast

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Giorgio M Baratelli
Published 20 Aug 2015
85% complete
Mammography
Case

Breast augmentation with autologous tissues

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Amr Farouk
Published 30 Dec 2017
88% complete
UltrasoundMammography

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