Items tagged “breast”
62 results found
Gestational and secretory hyperplasia
Gestational and secretory hyperplasia are pregnancy and lactation related physiological changes occurring in breast tissues. Pathology The normal physiology of pregnancy causes a lobular enlargement of terminal duct lobular units along with formation of new ones during the second month of gest...
Gigantomastia (also known as macromastia or mammomegaly) is the term employed when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. It may be rarely unilateral. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterized by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or gl...
Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...
Breast varix is, as the name suggests, varices in the breast that are focally dilated veins in the breast. Pathology If varices are seen bilaterally then a cause for central venous obstruction (superior vena cava syndrome) could be the underlying etiology with the varices being a part of the ...
Foramen of Langer
The foramen of Langer is a defect in the deep pectoralis fascia. It is a defect at the level of the third intercostal space, through which the upper lateral portion of the breast extends into the axilla forming the axillary tail of Spence.
Subareolar breast abscess are relatively uncommon and tend to occur mostly in young women. Clinical presentation Mastalgia, signs of inflammation, lump formation in the subareolar region and nipple discharge. In chronic cases fistula formation and nipple deformity may be seen. Pathology Squ...
Conditions involving the nipple-areolar complex
The nipple areolar complex is a major anatomic landmark of the breast. It may be affected by variation in its embryological development, breast maturation and also by other benign and malignant conditions. Variant anatomy amazia polythelia nipple retraction or inversion enlarged nipple Ben...
Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola
Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and the areola (NHNA) is a rare, idiopathic and benign dermatological condition. Epidemiology Most often seen in females of reproductive age, especially during 2nd and 3rd decades of life. Less than 70 cases have been reported till now. Clinical presentatio...
Step-oblique mammography is an accurate technique for determining whether a mammographic finding visible on multiple images on only one projection (but not elucidated using standard additional mammographic projections) represents a summation artefact or a true mass and for precisely localizing t...
Caudal cranial projection
Caudal cranial projection is an additional trouble shooting view. Technique invert the C arm as for a CC projection step the patient forward and have her bend excessively forward at the waist to ensure that the abdomen does not encroach in the x ray field place the image receptor above the b...
20° oblique projection
20° oblique projection is a troubleshooting projection used in mammography, especially in young women and in follow-up patients. Technique The C-arm is turned approximately 20° for a superomedial-inferolateral oblique. With the patient's feet pointing towards the unit and her torso turned slig...
Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection
Inferomedial superolateral oblique projection is useful for stereotactic biopsy positioning. This projection allows access to the inferior aspect of the breast to achieve shortest skin to abnormality distance. It is also useful in the nonconforming patient. Technique Rotate C arm to about 125°...
Nipple adenoma is a rare, benign breast lesion which often mimics a malignancy Clinical presentation Patient presents with bloody discharge from an ulcerated and painful nipple in one breast. There is itching associated with this lesion. Symptoms may show variation with the menstrual cycle. T...
Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple
Infiltrating syringomatous adenoma of the nipple is a relatively rare, benign dermal neoplasm of the areola and nipple. Clinical presentation Syringomatous adenomas of the nipple usually present as unilateral 1 to 3 cm firm lesion in the subareolar or nipple region of the breast. Tenderness, i...
Unilateral breast hypoplasia
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 09 Apr 2014
Breast cellulitis is an acute pyogenic inflammatory change involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. This can be secondary to any wound, surgery or radiation for breast carcinoma. Clinical presentation inflammatory changes such as edema, swelling and redness of the involved breast no def...
Fibroadenoma: involuting with macrocalcification
Published 27 May 2014
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast
Published 25 Jul 2015
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the breast
Published 20 Aug 2015
Breast augmentation with autologous tissues
Published 30 Dec 2017