Items tagged “breast”

36 results found
Article

Fibrocystic change (breast)

Fibrocystic change of the breast (also known as diffuse cystic mastopathy) is a benign alteration in the terminal ductal lobular unit of the breast with or without associated fibrosis. It is seen as a wide spectrum of altered morphology in the female breast from innocuous to those associated wit...
Article

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts

Ultrasound evaluation of breast cysts is the modality of choice. Obstruction of the ducts, often appearing as the result of epithelial hyperplastic processes or the stromal fibrosis, or both processes lead to the formation of cysts, disabling the drainage of the terminal ducts of the lobules. I...
Article

Breast hamartoma

Breast hamartomas, also known as fibroadenolipomas, are benign breast lesions. They are typified by a "breast within a breast" appearance on mammogram. Epidemiology They typically occur in women older than 35 years of age.  Clinical presentation Breast hamartomas most commonly are asymptomat...
Article

Intramammary lymph nodes

Intramammary lymph nodes (IMLN) are lymph nodes within the breast tissue. In breast imaging, they generally fall into BIRADS II lesions 7. They can be solitary or multiple. This article discusses normal (physiological) intramammary lymph nodes. Epidemiology Intramammary lymph nodes are seen in...
Article

Diabetic mastopathy

Diabetic mastopathy is a condition characterized by the presence of a benign tumor like breast masses in women with long-standing type 1 or type 2 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The condition has also been reported in men. A similar condition is lymphocytic mastitis but this occurs in non-...
Article

BI-RADS II

BI-RADS II is a benign category in the breast imaging reporting and data system. A finding placed in this category should have essentially a 100% chance of being benign.  Examples of such lesions include: calcified fibroadenomas multiple secretory calcifications fat-containing lesions such a...
Article

Pectoralis major

The pectoralis major muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region, overlying the anterior chest wall but is considered an upper limb muscle due to its function.  Summary origin sternal part: sternum and superior six costal cartilages clavicular part: medial half of the clavicle insertion: late...
Article

Chassaignac bursa

Chassaignac bursa (also known as the retromammary bursa, submammary serous bursa or occasionally Chassaignac bag) is the space behind the breast, lying between the pectoralis fascia posteriorly and deep layer of superficial fascia anteriorly. It contains loose connective tissue and aids in mobi...
Article

Breast within a breast sign

The breast within a breast sign refers to the common mammographic appearance of breast hamartomas (fibroadenolipomas). Since these benign lesions are well-circumscribed and contain a mixture of fibrous, glandular and fatty tissue (just like normal breast), it is not surprising that they appear v...
Article

Amastia

Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterized by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
Article

Breast hypoplasia

Breast hypoplasia is a condition which is characterized by underdevelopment of the breast. Breast hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Congenital hypoplasia Associations include: ulnar-mammary syndrome Poland syndrome Turner syndrome congenital adrenal hyperplasia Acquired...
Article

Amazia

Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex.  Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
Article

Breast

The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk. Gross anatomy Composition The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adipose tissue and glandular tissue. In additi...
Article

Montgomery glands

Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland. Gross anatomy Located within the nipple-areolar complex, Montgomery glands open onto the skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They...
Article

Aberrations in the normal development and involution of the breast

Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all-encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast disorders are essentially minor...
Article

Popcorn calcification within the breast

Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas which, as the name suggests, has a popcorn-like appearance.  Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
Article

Large rod like breast calcification

Large rod like calcifications are benign calcifications seen within ectatic ducts. Pathology Associations plasma cell mastitis Radiographic features >1 mm in diameter may have lucent centers (if calcium is only in walls of ducts) branching pattern may be seen radiation towards the nipple...
Article

Breast calcifications (an approach)

Breast calcifications are relatively frequent on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is important...
Article

Eggshell calcification (breast)

Eggshell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They are typically secondary to fat necrosis or calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim-like calcification (<1 mm in thickness) lucent centers small to several centimeters in di...
Article

Pseudocalcifications in the breast

Pseudocalcifications and artifacts in the breast include  gold deposits in lymph nodes  from intramuscular gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis  adhesive tape deodorant film-screen artifacts They should be differentiated from parenchymal calcification. Precautions to be taken are t...

Updating… Please wait.

 Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again.

 Thank you for updating your details.