Items tagged “breast”
59 results found
Diffuse bony metastases from breast cancer
Published 07 Jun 2013
Published 30 Aug 2013
Developing carcinoma left breast
Published 02 Nov 2013
Amastia is a rare congenital condition characterised by the absence of breast tissue, nipple and areola. This may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. Pathology During embryological development, breasts first appear as ectoderm ridges during the 6th week of gestation. This ridge grows thicker an...
Breast hypoplasia is a condition which is characterised by underdevelopment of the breast. Breast hypoplasia can be congenital or acquired. Pathology Congenital hypoplasia Associations include: ulnar-mammary syndrome Poland syndrome Turner syndrome congenital adrenal hyperplasia Acquired...
Amazia is a rare congenital condition defined by the absence of glandular parenchyma in either one or both of the breasts and a normal nipple and areola complex. Epidemiology This is a very rare entity and the true prevalence is not known. Although there are strict definition criteria, the di...
The breast is an apocrine gland seen in both males and females. However, in females it has a specific function which is the production of milk. Gross anatomy Composition The breast has an inhomogeneous structure which is predominantly composed of adipose tissue and glandular tissue. In additi...
Intramammary lymph nodes
Intramammary lymph nodes (IMLN) are lymph nodes within the breast tissue. In breast imaging, they generally fall into BIRADS II lesions 7. They can be solitary or multiple. This article discusses normal (physiological) intramammary lymph nodes. Epidemiology Intramammary lymph nodes are seen in...
Montgomery glands are large sebaceous glands in the breast, representing a transition between a mammary gland and a sweat gland. Gross anatomy Located within the nipple areola complex, Montgomery glands open on to skin surface via protrusions on the skin known as Montgomery tubercles. They num...
Chassaignac bursa (also known as retromammary bursa or submammary serous bursa) is the space behind the breast. It contains loose connective tissue and aids in mobility of the breast on the thoracic wall. Posteriorly it is bound by the pectoral fascia and anteriorly by the deep layer of the su...
Aberrations in the normal development and involution of the breast
Aberrations in the Normal Development and Involution of the breast (ANDI) is an all encompassing term that is used to describe a wide spectrum of the benign breast diseases. As the name suggests, it is based on the theory that most of the encountered benign breast disorders are essentially minor...
Fibrocystic change of the breast
Fibrocystic change (FCC) of the breast is a benign alteration in the terminal ductal lobular unit of the breast with or without associated fibrosis. It is seen as a wide spectrum of altered morphology in the female breast from innocuous to those associated with risk of carcinoma. Epidemiology ...
Popcorn calcification within the breast
Popcorn calcification in the breast is the classical description for the calcification seen in involuting fibroadenomas, which as the name suggests has a pop corn like appearance. Pathology A fibroadenoma in the long run may degenerate and calcify. Initially there are a few punctate periphera...
Large rod like breast calcification
Large rod like calcifications are benign calcifications seen within ectatic ducts. Pathology Associations plasma cell mastitis Radiographic features >1 mm in diameter may have lucent centres (if calcium is only in walls of ducts) branching pattern may be seen radiation towards the nip...
Breast calcifications (an approach)
Breast calcifications are relatively frequently found on mammograms and are indicative of focally active process, however about 80% of these processes are benign. Thus the ability to distinguish these calcifications based on their morphological characteristics, size, number and distribution is i...
Egg shell calcification within the breast
Egg shell calcifications in the breast are benign peripheral rim like calcifications Pathology They represent calcifications secondary to fat necrosis, calcification of oil cysts. Radiographic features thin rim like calcification (< 1mm in thickness) lucent centres small to several cent...
Pseudocalcifications in the breast
Pseudocalcifications and artifacts in the breast include gold deposits in lymph nodes from intramuscular gold therapy for rheumatoid arthritis adhesive tape deodorant film-screen artifacts They should be differentiated from parenchymal calcification. Precautions t...
Gestational and secretory hyperplasia
Gestational and secretory hyperplasia are pregnancy and lactation related physiological changes occurring in breast tissues. Pathology The normal physiology of pregnancy causes a lobular enlargement of terminal duct lobular units along with formation of new ones during the second month of gest...
Gigantomastia (or macromastia) is a term given when there is massive breast enlargement. It is often associated with pregnancy. Gigantomastia is a very common condition characterised by proliferation of either breast fatty tissue or glandular tissue or both, resulting in rapid increase in breas...
Puerperal mastitis refers to mastitis occurring during pregnancy and lactation. Epidemiology It occurs most often during breast feeding and is rarely encountered during pregnancy. Pathology The source of infection is the nursing infants nose and throat; the organisms being Staphylococcus aur...