Items tagged “cardiac”

90 results found
Article

Ventricular septal defect

Ventricular septal defects (VSD) represent a hole or pathway in the interventricular septum that allows for communication between the right and left ventricles. It typically results in a left-to-right shunt. Epidemiology They represent one of the most common congenital cardiac anomalies and ma...
Article

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), also referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) or simply arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, is a cardiomyopathy that is one of the more common causes of sudden cardiac death in young patients.  Epidemiology The estimate...
Article

Mustard repair

The Mustard repair is a technique to correct transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and involves: resection of atrial septum creation of an atrial baffle with a prosthetic material usually. 1,2 Rationale Transposition of the great arteries involves a discordance between the ventricles a...
Article

Right coronary artery

The right coronary artery (RCA) is one of the two main coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygenated blood. Gross anatomy Origin The right coronary artery arises from its ostium in the right sinus of Valsalva, found between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction.  C...
Article

Primary cardiac tumors

Primary cardiac tumors are uncommon and comprise only a small minority of all tumors that involve the heart: most are mediastinal or lung tumors that extend through the pericardium and into the heart, or metastases 1. Epidemiology Primary cardiac tumors have an estimated autopsy prevalence of ...
Article

Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm

A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm refers to abnormal dilatation of the sinus of valsalva and is a cause of thoracic aortic dilatation. Sinus of Valsalva aneurysms arise from one of the aortic sinuses. They are either congenital or acquired. Epidemiology There is a male predilection (M:F ratio being...
Article

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy diagnostic criteria

For the diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to be made, patients must have either two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria. Major criteria global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: severe dilatation of the ri...
Article

Right atrial enlargement

Right atrial (RA) enlargement is less common, and harder to delineate on chest radiograph, than left atrial (LA) enlargement. Pathology Etiology Enlargement of the right atrium (RA) can result from a number of conditions, including: raised right ventricular pressures pulmonary arterial hype...
Article

Left atrial enlargement

Left atrial enlargement (LAE) may result from many conditions, either congenital or acquired. It has some characteristic findings on a frontal chest radiograph. CT or MRI may also be used for diagnosis. Clinical presentation An enlarged left atrium can have many clinical implications, such as:...
Article

Left ventricular assist device (Doppler ultrasound)

In patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), spectral Doppler waveforms are altered due to continuous flow provided by the pump in the device: waveforms are monophasic with a constant antegrade flow and no flow below the baseline the waveform is typically parvus-tardus with a slow...
Article

Congestive hepatopathy

Congestive hepatopathy includes a spectrum of hepatic derangements that can occur in the setting of right-sided heart failure (and its underlying causes). If there is subsequent hepatic fibrosis the term cardiac cirrhosis may be used. The condition can rarely occur as a result of non-cardiac cau...
Article

Uhl anomaly

Uhl anomaly is an unusual cardiac disorder which affects the right ventricle where there is an almost complete absence of right ventricular myocardium, normal tricuspid valve, and preserved septal and left ventricular myocardium. Clinical presentation Presentation usually occurs in the neonata...
Article

Shmoo sign

Shmoo sign refers to the appearance of a prominent, rounded left ventricle and dilated aorta on a plain PA chest radiograph giving the appearance of Shmoo, a fictional cartoon character in the comic strip Li'l Abner, which first appeared in 1948 5. This sign is indicative of left ventricular enl...
Article

Hemochromatosis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac involvement in hemochromatosis typically occurs with primary hemochromatosis, as the organ is usually spared in the secondary form of the disease. For a general discussion, and for links to other system specific manifestations, please refer to the article on hemochromatosis.  Epidemiol...
Article

Innervation of the heart

The heart has extrinsic and intrinsic innervation, which allows the heart to continue beating if its nerve supply is disrupted (e.g. in cardiac transplant). The extrinsic supply is from parasympathetic (from the vagus nerve) and sympathetic nerves from both the superficial and deep cardiac plex...
Article

Left ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four heart chambers. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the systemic circulation via the aorta. Gross anatomy The left ventricle is conical in shape with an anteroinferiorly projecting apex and is longer with thicker walls than the ...
Article

Cardiac CT

Computed tomography of the heart or cardiac CT is routinely performed to gain knowledge about cardiac or coronary anatomy, to detect or diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD), to evaluate patency of coronary artery bypass grafts or implanted coronary stents or to evaluate volumetry and cardiac f...
Article

Tricuspid valve stenosis

Tricuspid valve stenosis is a valvulopathy that describes narrowing of the opening of the tricuspid valve between the right ventricle and the right atrium. Epidemiology MS is seen more commonly in women and in countries, generally developing nations, where rheumatic fever is common 1,2. Clini...
Article

Crista terminalis

The crista terminalis is a smooth muscular ridge in the superior aspect of the right atrium, formed following resorption of the right valve of the sinus venosus. It represents the junction between the sinus venarum, the "smooth" portion of the right atrium derived from the embryologic sinus veno...
Article

Moderator band

The moderator band, also called the septomarginal trabecula, is a consistent structure in the morphologic right ventricle and can be helpful as a landmark in situations where the ventricles may be ambiguous (i.e. in some forms of congenital heart disease). The term "septomarginal" is descriptiv...