Items tagged “cardiology”
179 results found
Cardiac blood pool scan
A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood scan scan is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery cardiomyopathy / my...
Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours. Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are...
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies
Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn. Clinical presentation Broadly, congenital cardiovascular anomalies ...
Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. systemic hypertension pulmonary hypertension portal hypertension
Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)
The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement inferred from the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle (LV). Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior border of IVC e...
Left-sided superior vena cava
A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Mitral annular calcification
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis. Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
Rheumatic fever is an illness caused by an immunological reaction following group A streptococcal infection. Epidemiology Rheumatic fever is most common in children aged 5 to 15 years. It is most common in developing nations where antibiotic prescription is low 1. Clinical presentation join...
Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Pathology Causes essential hypertension: idiopathic (95%) secondary hypertension: underlying cause identified (5%) Causes of secondary hypertension: renal acute glomerulopathies chronic renal failure...
Straight back syndrome
Straight back syndrome refers to the loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis and associated decrease in anteroposterior diameter. Clinical presentation Most patients are asymptomatic. On precordial auscultation, individuals with this condition can have an ejection systolic murmur over the pulmona...
Mitral annular calcification
Published 07 May 2008
Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign
The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side. It is a non-...
Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac rhabdomyomas
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 24 May 2009
Atrial septal defect
Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterised by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Du...
Published 19 Jun 2009
Multiple emboli from aortic valve
Diagnosis almost certain
Published 02 Sep 2009
Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI
ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
A pulmonary pseudotumour is no more than 'something' which mimics a tumour. Most frequently the term is used to denote focal collections of fluid trapped in the pleural fissures. Other entities which have been described with the term pseudotumours include: round atelectasis pulmonary inflammat...
Tetralogy of Fallot
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the overall most common cyanotic congenital heart condition with many cases presenting after the newborn period. It has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overridi...