Items tagged “cardiology”

169 results found
Article

Cardiac blood pool scan

A multi-gated (MUGA) cardiac blood scan scan is a common study performed in patients who are receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.  Indications acute myocardial infarction (AMI) coronary artery disease (CAD) evaluation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery cardiomyopathy / my...
Article

Cardiac myxoma

Cardiac myxomas, although uncommon are one of the commonest primary cardiac tumours and account for ~50% primary benign cardiac tumours.  Epidemiology Cardiac myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumour in adults but are relatively infrequent in childhood, where cardiac rhabdomyomas are...
Article

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies

Congenital cardiovascular anomalies are relatively common, with an incidence of up to 1% if small muscular VSDs are included. As a group, there is a much greater frequency in syndromic infants and in those that are stillborn.  Pathology These defects as a group have a heterogeneous aetiology w...
Article

Hypertension

Hypertension refers to an increase in blood pressure above the 'normal' for the age, sex and ethnicity of the patient. This can be specified according to the vascular system involved. systemic hypertension pulmonary hypertension portal hypertension
Article

Hoffman-Rigler sign (heart)

The Hoffman-Rigler sign is a sign of left ventricular enlargement where an approximation of the distance between the inferior vena cava (IVC) and left ventricle is used.​ Radiographic features On a lateral chest radiograph, if the distance between the left ventricular border and the posterior ...
Article

Left-sided superior vena cava

A left-sided superior vena cava (SVC) is the most common congenital venous anomaly in the chest, and in a minority of cases can result in a right-to-left shunt 3-4. Epidemiology A left-sided SVC is seen in 0.3-0.5% of the normal population and in ~5% of those with congenital heart disease 3. I...
Article

Mitral annular calcification

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) refers to deposition of calcium (along with lipid) in the annular fibrosa of the mitral valve. Epidemiology Annular calcification is seen in up to 35% of elderly patients. It is common in females over 65 years, in those with myxtomatous degeneration of the mi...
Article

Pericardial calcification

Pericardial calcification usually occurs in patients with a history of pericarditis.  Pathology Aetiology uraemia previous trauma or prior pericarditis later sequelae of rheumatic heart disease malignant pericardial involvement (e.g. mediastinal teratoma) On chest radiography, location of...
Article

Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever is a multisystemic inflammatory disorder caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction following group A beta haemolytic streptococcus pharyngeal infection. Cross reaction of antibodies against protein M with other cells glycoproteins leads to involvement of other organs such as he...
Article

Systemic hypertension

Systemic hypertension is defined medically as a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg. Pathology Causes essential hypertension: idiopathic (95%) secondary hypertension: underlying cause identified (5%) Causes of secondary hypertension: renal acute glomerulopathies chronic renal failure...
Article

Straight back syndrome

Straight back syndrome refers to loss of the normal thoracic kyphosis. Individuals with this condition can present with a cardiac murmur due to compression of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) 2.   There is questionable association with mitral valve prolapse 1. 
Case

Mitral annular calcification

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 07 May 2008
91% complete
X-rayPhoto
Article

Flat floor of fourth ventricle sign

The flat floor of fourth ventricle sign is useful in detecting a pontine mass and is a sign of mass effect. The normal floor of the fourth ventricle (remember that the floor is anterior) normally slopes upwards towards the midline, with the facial colliculi visible on either side.  It is a non-...
Case

Tuberous sclerosis and cardiac rhabdomyomas

Cardiac rhabodmyo...
 Diagnosis almost certain
A.Prof Frank Gaillard
Published 24 May 2009
50% complete
UltrasoundCT
Article

Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defects (ASDs) are the second most common congenital heart defect after ventricular septal defects and the most common to become symptomatic in adulthood. They are characterised by an abnormal opening in the atrial septum allowing communication between the right and left atria. Du...
Case

Biventricular pacemaker

 Diagnosis certain
Dr Jeremy Jones
Published 19 Jun 2009
63% complete
X-ray
Case

Multiple emboli from aortic valve

Multiple infarcts
 Diagnosis almost certain
Dr Natalie Yang
Published 02 Sep 2009
56% complete
CT
Article

Chest radiograph assessment using ABCDEFGHI

ABCDEFGHI can be used to guide a systematic interpretation of chest x-rays. Assessment of quality / Airway The quality of the image can be assessed using the mnemonic PIER: position: is this a supine AP file? PA? Lateral? inspiration: count the posterior ribs. You should see 10 to 11 ribs wi...
Article

Pulmonary pseudotumour

A pulmonary pseudotumour is no more than 'something' which mimics a tumour. Most frequently the term is used to denote focal collections of fluid trapped in the pleural fissures. Other entities which have been described with the term pseudotumours include: round atelectasis pulmonary inflammat...
Article

Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the second most common cyanotic congenital heart condition and has been classically characterised by the combination of ventricular septal defect (VSD), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (RVOTO), overriding aorta, and a late right ventricular hypertrophy. ...

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