Items tagged “cardiovascular”

11 results found

Anomalous right coronary artery (ARCA) with interarterial course

  Diagnosis certain
Erik Ranschaert
Published 23 Nov 2010
92% complete

Transseptal course of left coronary artery

  Diagnosis almost certain
Jens Christian Fischer
Published 29 Jan 2011
77% complete


Hemoptysis (plural: hemoptyses) refers to coughing up of blood. Generally, it appears bright red in color as opposed to blood from the gastrointestinal tract which appears dark red. It is considered an alarming sign of a serious underlying etiology. Terminology A variety of clinical classifica...

Normal hepatic vein Doppler

The hepatic veins have a characteristic spectral Doppler waveform. Alterations in the normal hepatic vein waveform may reveal or confirm abnormalities in the heart or liver. Terminology The shape of the hepatic vein spectral Doppler waveform is primarily determined by pressure changes in the r...

Transesophageal echocardiography

A standard transesophageal echocardiography (TOE, or TEE in US English) is a type of echocardiography using an endoscopic transducer, which is advanced into the thoracic esophagus, offering generally superior visualization of the great vessels and posterior cardiac structures than the standard t...

Brugada syndrome

A cardiac "channelopathy" resulting from mutations in genes coding for cardiac sodium (Na+) channels, the Brugada syndrome is a common cardiac cause of sudden death in patients with structurally normal hearts. Epidemiology Age of diagnosis ranges from 2 days to 84 years old. It is estimated to...

Fetal ventricular tachycardia

A rare entity, fetal ventricular tachycardia presents with a rapid ventricular rate exceeding, and occurring independently from, the atrial rate.  The ventricular rate is typically over 180 beats per minute 1. Atrioventricular dissociation is characteristic; two separate pacemakers dictate the a...

Double aortic arch

  Diagnosis almost certain
Şaban Tiryaki
Published 22 May 2020
83% complete
CT X-ray

Retroaortic coronary course

A retroaortic course refers to a coronary artery taking its route posteriorly between the non-coronary sinus and the interatrial septum and is considered a ‘benign anomalous course’. Epidemiology Associations Clinical conditions associated with a retroaortic course of a coronary artery includ...

Mitral annular disjunction

Mitral annulus disjunction (MAD) is an anatomic abnormality involving the confluence of the left atrium, mitral valve annulus, and the base of the left ventricle. It is classically associated with the spectrum of myxomatous disease of the mitral valve and mitral valve prolapse (MVP).  Epidemiol...


Shock is a pathologic state in which cellular injury results from an inadequate degree of effective tissue perfusion 5. It is commonly subcategorized by hemodynamic parameters into hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and extracardiac obstructive shock 1. Common causes include hemorrhage, car...

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