Items tagged “case2”

135 results found
Article

CT angiogram sign (lungs)

The CT angiogram sign refers to vessels appearing prominent on contrast-enhanced CT as they traverse an airless low attenuation portion of consolidated lung 1,2. This sign has been associated with 1,2: lung adenocarcinoma 3 pulmonary lymphoma metastasis from gastrointestinal carcinoma infec...
Article

Papillary tumor of the pineal region

Papillary tumors of the pineal region are one of five pineal parenchymal tumors under the current (2021) WHO classification of CNS tumors with intermediate natural history and a grade of 2 or 3.  Epidemiology Papillary tumors of the pineal region are seen in a wide range of ages, reported from...
Article

Liver protocol (MRI)

Examination of the liver with MRI requires numerous sequences and imaging at multiple times after the administration of contrast.   Note: This article is intended to outline some general principles of protocol design. The specifics will vary depending on MRI hardware and software, radiologist's...
Article

Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome

Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (BOS), also known as disseminated dermatofibrosis lenticularis 2, comprises osteopoikilosis associated with disseminated connective tissue and cutaneous yellowish nevi, predominantly on the extremities and trunk 1. Genetic work has linked this syndrome to both isolate...
Article

Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma

Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of rhabdomyosarcoma, and is the least common, accounting for only 5% of all rhabdomyosarcomas. Unlike embryonal and alveolar types, these tumors occur in adults over the age of 40 years 1 and are difficult to distinguish from other pleomorphic sarcomas such...
Article

High attenuation lymphadenopathy

High attenuation lymphadenopathy or adenopathy variably refers to abnormal lymph nodes with attenuation on CT usually higher compared to muscle, either on a noncontrast exam or following contrast administration (i.e. hyperenhancement) 5. Differential diagnosis High attenuation nodes may be due...
Article

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II

Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II, also known as Langer-Giedion syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder. Pathology The effects are seen mainly on the skeletal system and primarily involves hair: "tricho-" nose: "rhino-" digits of the hands and feet: "-phalang...
Article

HIV/AIDS (musculoskeletal manifestations)

Musculoskeletal manifestations of HIV/AIDS are not as common as CNS or pulmonary complications. Nonetheless, their prevalence is high.  Pathology Depending on the condition, etiology may be related to the HIV infection itself, the resultant immunodeficiency, or antiretroviral therapy (ART). I...
Article

Oxalosis

Oxalosis is supersaturation of calcium oxalate in the urine (hyperoxaluria), which in turn results in nephrolithiasis and cortical nephrocalcinosis.  This article focus on the secondary oxalosis, please refer to primary oxalosis for a specific discussion on this entity.  Pathology Calcium oxa...
Article

CT colonography reporting and data system

CT Colonography Reporting and Data System (C-RADS) is a method for standardizing CT colonography (CTC) reporting. The current revision is 2023 5. Terminology A polyp is defined as a homogenous soft tissue attenuation lesion projecting into the colonic lumen with a fixed point of attachment to ...
Article

Ovarian collision tumor

Ovarian collision tumors are an uncommon ovarian neoplasm where there is co-existence of two adjacent but histologically distinct tumors in an ovary with no histologic admixture at the interface. Pathology The exact pathogenesis is not well known. They are most commonly composed of ovarian ter...
Article

Endometritis

Endometritis refers to inflammation or infection involving the endometrium. Endometritis can be acute or chronic and may arise in an obstetric setting, such as following delivery or miscarriage, or in a non-obstetric setting due to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) or endometrial instrumentation...
Article

Isolated cleft palate

An isolated cleft palate is a type of facial cleft. This is a much rarer occurrence than a cleft lip +/- palate and is thought to represent a different pathological entity. Epidemiology The estimated incidence is at ~1 per 2000-2500 pregnancies 4-5. There may be a slight female predilection 4....
Article

Lethal skeletal dysplasias

Lethal skeletal dysplasias form a heterogeneous group that is commonly characterized as being non-survivable for prolonged periods ex-utero. They include (in alphabetical order): achondrogenesis atelosteogenesis campomelic dysplasia chondrodysplasia punctata: lethal variants  metatropic dys...
Article

Lower vaginal atresia

Lower vaginal atresia is a type of vaginal atresia where the lower third of the vagina fails to develop. Clinical presentation Patients may present with primary amenorrhea with progressive cyclical abdominal pain. Pathology It is usually not considered a type of Mullerian duct anomaly. It oc...
Article

Fetal middle cerebral arterial peak systolic velocity

The fetal middle cerebral arterial (MCA) peak systolic velocity (PSV) is an important parameter in fetal MCA Doppler assessment. Measurement The fetal MCA should be sampled ~2 mm from the origin of the fetal internal carotid artery and the angle of the ultrasound beam and the direction of bloo...
Article

Pulled elbow syndrome

Pulled elbow (also known as nursemaid's elbow) is a subluxation of the radial head into the annular ligament, which usually spontaneously or easily reduces and rarely demonstrates abnormal radiographic features. If the clinical presentation is atypical, pulled elbow should be distinguished from ...
Article

Junctional zone (uterus)

Junctional zone is a region representing the inner myometrium of the uterus and is a very important imaging feature in pelvic MR imaging for the interpretation of various pathologies. In its intact state, it is usually visible on MRI as a low T2 signal layer beneath the endometrium. At times, it...
Article

Doughnut sign on bone scinigraphy

The doughnut sign refers to the bone scintrigraphy pattern where there is increased uptake peripherally with a photopenic center. This appearance may be seen in a number of cystic lesions including: aneurysmal bone cyst giant cell tumor simple bone cyst The doughnut sign is a non-specific si...
Article

Middle meningeal artery

The middle meningeal artery is the dominant supply of the cranial dura. It arises from the first part of the maxillary artery, a terminal branch of the external carotid artery. It enters the middle cranial fossa via the foramen spinosum. Here it gives off two basal branches—the petrosal branch a...