Items tagged “case3”

243 results found
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Serous atrophy of bone marrow

Serous atrophy of bone marrow is a non-neoplastic bone marrow disorder that occurs with chronic illness and poor nutritional status. It is characterized by atrophy of the fatty marrow and loss of hematopoietic cells, replaced by an accumulation of extracellular mucinous substances. Terminology ...
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Myoepithelioma

Myoepitheliomas and malignant myoepitheliomas were considered a variant of pleomorphic adenomas until 1991. However, these are also found in the breast and bronchus and have gained recognition as separate entities 1. Epidemiology They account for <1% of salivary gland tumors, and only rarely u...
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Normal facial nerve enhancement on MRI

The normal facial nerve (CN VII) can demonstrate some enhancement post gadolinium, with the prevalence of which segments is highly variable depending on the MRI sequence 4-8. Enhancement may be asymmetric 4-6. It has been attributed to the circumneural facial arteriovenous plexus.c Typical site...
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (staging)

Rhabdomyosarcoma staging is based on the Lawrence/Gehan staging system, which comprises of a combination of pretreatment staging and postoperative clinical grouping. Stage stage I: orbit, eyelid, head and neck (excluding parameningeal), genitourinary (non-bladder, non-prostate), N0 or 1, M0 s...
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Spiculated periosteal reaction

Spiculated periosteal reaction represents spicules of new bone-forming along vascular channels and the fibrous bands that anchor periosteum to bone (Sharpey fibers). Pathology A spiculated periosteal reaction signifies a rapid underlying process that prevents the formation of new bone under th...
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Small for dates fetus

A small for dates fetus can result from a number of factors. Pathology Etiology Fetal factors aneuploidy trisomy triploidy skeletal dysplasia(s) structural anomalies (syndromes) Maternal factors Common hypertension medication(s): fetal Warfarin syndrome hydantoin embryopathy (Dilan...
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Chondroblastoma vs clear cell chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between a chondroblastoma and epiphyseal clear cell chondrosarcoma can be difficult and differences are listed. Epidemiology Both bone tumors have been reported at any age, but chondroblastomas are usually seen in the 2nd and early 3rd decade whereas clear cell chondrosarcomas h...
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Iron deficiency anemia

Iron deficiency anemia is a common cause of anemia and a common precipitant to radiological investigation. Epidemiology Amongst men and postmenopausal women, the incidence in the developed world is around 2%. Among premenopausal women, the incidence is greater and in most cases, investigation ...
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Pelvic protocol for endometriosis (MRI)

Evaluation of known endometriosis with MRI requires a slightly different protocol to a routine pelvic MRI (see pelvic MRI protocol: routine) and should probably be reserved for known cases of endometriosis rather than for the assessment of pelvic pain. IV or IM Buscopan is administered to reduc...
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Amsterdam criteria for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer

The Amsterdam criteria, also known as the ICG–HNPCC criteria, were established for the selection of families with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) for research but are not exclusionary for the diagnosis of HNPCC 5. Usage Amsterdam criteria were first established in 1990 and r...
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Anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma

Anaplastic rhabdomyosarcomas are a subtype of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, characterized by extensive anaplastic cells seen throughout the tumor 1.
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Cyanotic congenital heart disease

A number of entities can present as cyanotic congenital heart disease. These can be divided into those with increased (pulmonary plethora) or decreased pulmonary vascularity: increased pulmonary vascularity total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) (types I and II) transposition of the ...
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Small cell lung cancer (staging) (historical)

Previously, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was not staged in the same manner as non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but since 2013 both are staged using the IASLC (International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer) lung cancer staging system.  The idea behind a different staging system for ...
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Varicella zoster virus encephalitis

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis can be due to either an immune reaction to primary infection or reactivation of latent infection in cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia following childhood chickenpox 1. Diagnosis Diagnosis is often made with a combination of serum blood tests, cerebr...
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Fetal biophysical profile

Fetal biophysical profile score (BPS or BPP) refers to the assessment of four discrete biophysical variables by ultrasound. It is a standard tool in antepartum fetal assessment. It is usually assessed after 28 weeks of gestation. Radiographic features Ultrasound The ultrasound variables are: ...
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Hemolytic disease of the newborn

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) results when maternal antibodies attack the fetal red blood cells, leading to a hemolytic anemia and accumulation of bilirubin in the fetus or newborn. It can affect the newborn to varying degrees of severity. When the condition occurs in utero, the term is...
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Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter that can be used in the assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radio...
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Adams-Oliver syndrome

Adams-Oliver syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (missing hair and/or skin) and variable degrees of terminal transverse limb defects. It may be accompanied by orofacial and cardiac malformations 6. Pathology Associations polymicrogyria: may be associated with ...
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Classification system for malformations of the cerebellum

Classification systems for malformations of the cerebellum are varied and are constantly being revised as a greater understanding of the underlying genetics and embryology of the disorders is uncovered. Classification A classification proposed by Barkovich et al. in 2009 1 divides cerebellar ...
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Classification system for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull

Classification systems for midline abnormalities of the brain and skull are varied and constantly changing as the underlying embryology and genetics are uncovered. Classification A relatively simple and robust classification system is based on the location of abnormalities, proposed by Nuñez ...