Items tagged “case3”

72 results found
Article

Normal facial nerve enhancement on MRI

The normal facial nerve (CN VII) can demonstrate some enhancement post gadolinium, with the prevalence of which segments is highly variable depending on the MRI sequence 4-8. Enhancement may be asymmetric 4-6. It has been attributed to the circumneural facial arteriovenous plexus. Typical sites...
Article

Spiculated periosteal reaction

Spiculated periosteal reaction represents spicules of new bone-forming along vascular channels and the fibrous bands that anchor tendons to bone (Sharpey fibers). Pathology A spiculated periosteal reaction signifies a rapid underlying process that prevents the formation of new bone under the r...
Article

Chondroblastoma vs clear cell chondrosarcoma

Distinguishing between a chondroblastoma and epiphyseal clear cell chondrosarcoma can be difficult and differences are listed. Epidemiology Both bone tumors have been reported at any age, but chondroblastomas are usually seen in the 2nd and early 3rd decade whereas clear cell chondrosarcomas h...
Article

Fetal cardiothoracic circumference ratio

Fetal cardiothoracic (C/T) circumference ratio is a parameter that can be used in the assessment of fetal cardiac and thoracic/chest wall anomalies. It is the ratio of the cardiac circumference to the thoracic circumference and may be easily measured on fetal ultrasound/echocardiography.  Radio...
Article

Osteoarthritis of the vertebral column

Osteoarthritis of the vertebral column, also known as spinal osteoarthritis, is so common that it is widely known as spinal "degenerative change". Complications such as spinal stenosis are important to recognize.  Radiographic features Spinal osteoarthritis presents radiologically like other j...
Article

MRI grading system for abnormal meniscal signal intensity

MRI grading system for abnormal high meniscal signal intensity was reported by Lotysch et al.   Classification Grade 1 to 3 have been described on MRI: grade 1: small focal area of hyperintensity, no extension to the articular surface grade 2: linear areas of hyperintensity, no extension to ...
Article

Subspine impingement of the hip

Subspine impingement of the hip is a type of extra-articular hip impingement, also known as anterior inferior iliac spine impingement. This condition occurs when a normal, low-lying or enlarged anterior inferior iliac spine contacts the femoral neck with hip flexion. Presenting symptoms of this ...
Article

Masseter muscle

The masseter muscle is one of the muscles of mastication. It is rectangular shaped and consists of three layers of fibers, where the superficial layer is the largest. Summary origin: zygomatic arch insertion: ramus and angle of mandible innervation: masseteric nerve from the anterior divisio...
Article

Posterior ethmoidal artery

The posterior ethmoidal artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery. It supplies the posterior ethmoidal sinuses, dura and nasal cavity. It passes through the posterior ethmoidal foramen to enter the anterior cranial fossa where it gives off meningeal and nasal branches.
Article

Plantar fascia

The plantar fascia or plantar aponeurosis is a dense collection of collagen fibers on the sole (plantar surface) of the foot. These fibers are mostly longitudinal but also transverse. Gross anatomy Posteriorly it attaches to the medial process of the tuberosity of the calcaneus, proximal to fl...
Article

Synovial enhancement

Synovial enhancement is an imaging feature typically observed on MRI imaging. It can occur in various forms and can be focal or diffuse. Pathology inflammatory synovitis transient synovitis of the hip infective synovitis inflammatory arthritides septic arthritis tuberculous septic arthri...
Article

Mallet toe deformity

Mallet toes are an isolated flexion deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) of the foot. Pathology Mallet toe is often attributed to tightness in shoes. There is flexion of the DIPJ initially as a result of direct pressure from the shoe but eventually, the flexor digitorum longus ...
Article

Intramedullary osteosclerosis

Intramedullary osteosclerosis is a sclerosing dysplasia associated with increased bone formation within the medullary cavity. It is a diagnosis of exclusion.  Epidemiology There is a female predilection, with the condition usually discovered in adulthood. No hereditary risk has been demonstrat...
Article

Gallbladder cancer

Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon compared to other hepatobiliary malignancies. Pathology Primary gallbladder carcinoma gallbladder adenocarcinoma: most common 1 gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma gallbladder neuroendocrine carcinoma gallbladder sarcoma: very rare 2 gallbladder ...
Article

Osteitis

Osteitis is an inflammation of the bone, usually in the context of inflammatory arthropathy. Terminology Osteitis refers only to the inflammation of bony structures, in particular the cortex (non-medullary infection or infectious osteitis) 1-3. If there is infectious involvement of the medulla...
Article

Radiation recall pneumonitis

Radiation recall pneumonitis s a rare reaction occurring in previously irradiated areas of pulmonary tissue after the application of triggering agents (e.g. chemotherapeutic agents, immunomodulators). It is not thought to be due to the direct effect of radiation. Classically this has been descri...
Article

ARCO classification of osteonecrosis

The ARCO classification (Association Research Circulation Osseous classification) is one of the staging systems used in the assessment of femoral head osteonecrosis. It was originally created in 1994 and periodically revised. The most recent revision from 2019 2 includes the use of radiographs a...
Article

Venous lacunae (skull)

Venous lacunae, also known as venous lakes, are enlarged venous spaces within the skull, most often in the parasagittal region. They are normal variants and their primary importance is that they may mimic lytic lesions.  Gross anatomy  Venous lacunae are the result of focal venous dilatations ...
Article

Lumbar foraminal stenosis

Lumbar foraminal stenosis or lumbar neuroforaminal stenosis is described as narrowing of the neural exit foramina. It is a common cause of backache and/or radiculopathy and is assessed as part of the routine evaluation of lumbar MRI studies to determine what impact, if any, the surrounding struc...
Article

Lesions of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation

Lesions of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation are partial or complete tears of the prepatellar quadriceps continuation, that can occur with or without patellar or quadriceps tendon tears and can cause anterior knee pain.  Pathology Disruption and separation of prepatellar quadriceps conti...

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