Items tagged “cases”

4,760 results found
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AIDS cholangiopathy

AIDS cholangiopathy refers to an acalculous, secondary opportunistic cholangitis that occurs in AIDS patients as a result of immunosuppression.  Pathology Characterised by multiple irregular strictures essentially indistinguishable from primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). There are four path...
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Accessory right inferior hepatic vein

An accessory right inferior hepatic vein is the most common variation of the hepatic veins.  It is present in up to 48% of the population and drains the posterior part of the right lobe (mainly segments 6 and 7) directly into the inferior vena cava. Variations in hepatic vascular anatomy are pa...
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Acromioclavicular joint configuration

There is much variation in acromioclavicular joint configuration, which may be confused with pathology. The relationship of the acromion to the distal clavicle at the AC joint can be described in the coronal plane as 1-3: horizontal: normal low-lying: associated with shoulder impingement (unfo...
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Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy (differential)

Acute airspace opacification with lymphadenopathy is a subset of the differential diagnosis for generalised airspace opacification and includes: post-obstructive causes (usually chronic, but 'new' changes can occur) primary lung cancer pulmonary metastases lymphoma/leukaemia infection pri...
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Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour

Adenomatoid odontogenic tumours are rare and differ from most other dentition related lesions in that they more frequently occur in the maxilla. Epidemiology They are also seen more frequently in females, most frequently in the second decade of life. Radiographic features They present as an ...
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Agger nasi cells

Agger nasi air cells are the most anterior ethmoidal air cells lying anterolateral and inferior to the frontal recess and anterior and above the attachment of the middle turbinate. They are located within the lacrimal bone and therefore have as lateral relations the orbit, the lacrimal sac and t...
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Aggressive angiomyxoma

Aggressive angiomyxomas are rare tumours that arise in the pelvis and typically cross the levator ani muscles. Despite its name, it is essentially a benign tumour and the term "aggressive" is given due to a predilection for local recurrence. Only rarely does it metastasise. Epidemiology It is ...
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Angiosarcoma

 Angiosarcomas (like haemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumours that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having metastases at the time of ...
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Musculoskeletal angiosarcoma

Musculoskeletal angiosarcomas, (along with haemangiopericytomas and haemangioendotheliomas) are tumours that arise from vascular structures. They are typically difficult to distinguish from one another on imaging alone. Angiosarcomas, are the most aggressive of the three, frequently having meta...
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Aphthoid ulceration

Aphthoid ulcers are shallow ulcers of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Pathology Aetiology infective inflammatory conditions Yersinia enterocolitis amoebic enterocolitis cytomegalovirus enterocolitis noninfective inflammatory conditions Crohn disease idiopathic granulomatous gastritis vasc...
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Apple-peel intestinal atresia

Apple-peel intestinal atresia, also known as type IIIb or Christmas tree intestinal atresia, is a rare form of small bowel atresia in which the duodenum or proximal jejunum ends in a blind pouch and the distal small bowel wraps around its vascular supply in a spiral resembling an apple peel. Oft...
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Arteriosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis is defined by thickening and loss of elasticity of the arterial walls. There are three patterns (arteriosclerosis is used as a generic term for all patterns above): atherosclerosis: large and medium-sized arteries Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis: muscular arteries arter...
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BOLD imaging

Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) imaging is the standard technique used to generate images in functional MRI (fMRI) studies, and relies on regional differences in cerebral blood flow to delineate regional activity.  Blood flow in the brain is highly locally controlled in response to oxy...
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Banana sign (cerebellum)

The banana sign is one of the many notable fruit inspired signs. It is seen on axial imaging through the posterior fossa of the fetus and is associated with the Chiari II malformation. It describes the way the cerebellum is wrapped tightly around the brain stem as a result of spinal cord tether...
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Barton fracture

Barton fractures are fractures of the distal radius. It is also sometimes termed the dorsal type Barton fracture to distinguish it from the volar type or reverse Barton fracture. Barton fractures extend through the dorsal aspect to the articular surface but not to the volar aspect. Therefore, i...
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Basal ganglia T2 hypointensity

Basal ganglia T2 hypointensities can be caused by any of the following and is commonly remembered using the mnemonic ChOMP. childhood hypoxia old age multiple sclerosis Parkinson disease: more in globus pallidus Parkinson-plus syndrome: more in putamen deoxyhemoglobin of hemorrhage haemos...
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Bennett lesion of the shoulder

Bennett lesions of the shoulder, also called thrower's exostosis refers to the mineralisation of the posterior band of the inferior glenohumeral ligament.  Epidemiology The abnormality is more prevalent in overhead throwing athletes. Associations It is associated with posterior labral tears,...
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Renal transplant related complications

The recipients of renal transplants are susceptible to a number of complications. Incidence of each is variable and partially subject to specific surgical transplantation techniques and management patterns 3. Pathology Renal transplant complications These can be broadly categorised as periren...
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Renal transplant related complications

The recipients of renal transplants are susceptible to a number of complications. Incidence of each is variable and partially subject to specific surgical transplantation techniques and management patterns 3. Pathology Renal transplant complications These can be broadly categorised as periren...
Article

Bilateral megalencephaly

Bilateral megalencephaly refers to megalencephaly affecting both cerebral hemispheres. Pathology Associations achondroplasia acromegaly Alexander disease Canavan disease mucopolysaccharidoses neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) Proteus syndrome Tay-Sachs disease tuberous sclerosis (TS) va...

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