Cushing syndrome is due to the effects of excessive glucocorticoids which may be exogenous or endogenous.
In modern Western populations, iatrogenic steroid administration for treatment of inflammatory condition is the most common cause, e.g. asthma, rheumatoid arthritis.
Causes of focal pulmonary opacities on a chest radiograph can be remembered using the rather crude mnemonic:
F: 'fection (pulmonary infection)
F: 'farction (pulmonary infarction)
F: fluid (pulmonary oedema)
F: f***ed (lung cancer)
Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of synovial fluid. It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. They may or may not communicate ...
A helpful mnemonic to recall the causes of T2 hyperintense basal ganglia is:
N: neurodegenerative conditions
For a more detailed differential please see T2 hyperintense basal ganglia article.
Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited renal disorder.
Bartter syndrome is characterised by hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells along with:
hypotension or normotension
elevated plasma renin
McLeod syndrome, also known as McLeod phenomenon is a rare X-linked syndrome caused by a mutation in the XK gene that results in haematological abnormalities and late-onset, slowly progressive degeneration of a variety of tissues including the brain, peripheral nerves, muscle and heart 1. It sh...
Peritoneal hydatidosis occurs secondary to seeding of echinococcosis to the peritoneum, usually secondary to rupture of hydatid disease of liver.
Seeding involves the entire peritoneum and gives appearance of an multiloculated mass.
Peritoneal hydatidosis can be pri...
Atypical ectopic pregnancy generally refers to an ectopic pregnancy which occurs outside the fallopian tube.
interstitial ectopic: 3% (often also termed cornual ectopic), also essentially a type of tubal ectopic
cornual ectopic (<1%)
ovarian ectopic: 0.5-1% (ovarian pregna...
Menkes disease, also known as trichopoliodystrophy or Kinky hair kinky vessel syndrome, is an X-linked recessive disorder that results in a derangement in copper handling. It results in low copper levels and subsequently, deficiency in copper dependant mitochondrial enzymes.
Petersen hernias are internal hernias which occur in the potential space posterior to a gastrojejunostomy. This hernia is caused by the herniation of intestinal loops through the defect between the small bowel limbs, the transverse mesocolon and the retroperitoneum, after any type of gastrojejun...
Arachnoiditis is a broad term encompassing inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space.
Arachnoiditis affecting the cauda equina may be referred to as spinal/lumbar adhesive arachnoiditis.
Lumbar spine arachnoiditis can result in leg pain, sensory c...
Haemosiderosis is a general term referring to accumulation of haemosiderin, which particularly occurs in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and does not cause organ damage.
Some causes include:
mainly depositional siderosis in RES
if >40 units transfused: t...
Mendelson syndrome or peptic pneumonia refers to acute chemical pneumonitis caused by the aspiration of stomach contents in patients under general anesthesia.
The etiologic agents is believed to be aspiration of acidic stomach contents, other compounds, e.g. bile, may also play a rol...
The Haggitt level is a histopathological term used for describing the degree of infiltration from a malignant polypoidal lesion.
Levels of invasion
0: carcinoma in situ or intramucosal carcinoma
1: invasion of the submucosa, but limited to the head of the polyp
2: invasion extending into the...
Pick disease is a neurodegenerative disease, and one of the tauopathies characterised by the accumulation of Pick bodies.
Pick disease is sometimes used synonymously with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, although this is probably unwise, as not all cases which fit clinically into...
Caplan syndrome, also known as rheumatoid pneumoconiosis, is the combination of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis and a characteristic pattern of fibrosis.
Although first described in coal miners (coal workers' pneumoconiosis), it has subsequently been found in patients with a variety of pneumo...
CHARGE syndrome is an acronym that classically describes a combination head and neck, cardiac, CNS and genitourinary disorders:
H: heart defects (congenital heart disease)
A: atresia (choanal)
R: retardation (mental)
G: genital hypoplasia
E: ear abnormalities/deafness
Epidermolysis bullosa refers to a rare group of genetically determined conditions characterised by blistering of the skin. This can be limited to the soles and palms or extensive whole body involvement.
limited to the mucosa of the gastr...
A fetal hydrocoele refers to an hydrocoele present in utero.
They may be sonographically identified in ~ 15% of male fetuses in the third trimester 6.
Often result from a patent processus vaginalis. They are more frequently unilateral.
Incomplete miscarriage is a term given to miscarriage where there are retained products of conception still within the uterus.
Ultrasound appearance is variable, ranging from visible fetal parts to a mass of mixed echogenicity. The presence of a prominent vasc...