Items tagged “cases3”

344 results found
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Tuberculous abscess

Tuberculous abscesses are an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis, most often encountered in immunocompromised individuals (e.g. HIV/AIDS). Unlike the far more common tuberculomas (tuberculous granulomas), tuberculous abscesses contain pus with abundant identifiable organisms 1. The capsule tha...
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Babcock triangle

Babcock triangle is a relatively radiolucent triangular area seen in the subcapital region of the femoral neck on an anteroposterior radiograph of the hip. In this region, the trabeculae are loosely arranged and surrounded by more radiodense normal bony trabeculae groups. It may be the initial s...
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Thoracoepigastric vein

The thoracoepigastric vein provides a communication between the superficial epigastric vein and the lateral thoracic vein as it ascends superficially on the anterolateral chest and abdominal wall. It, therefore, drains into both the superior vena cava (SVC) via the axillary vein and the inferior...
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Calcifying odontogenic cyst

Calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is a form of odontogenic cyst. There is some disagreement on the terminology and classification of this lesion. Epidemiology It may represent around 0.3-0.8% of all odontogenic cysts 2.  Although the age range of COC is wide, approximately one-third of cases a...
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Olecranon stress fracture

Olecranon stress fractures are one of the three types of fractures that may occur in the olecranon in throwing and overhead athletes 1. Epidemiology Olecranon stress fractures predominantly occur in throwing and overhead athletes including sports such as baseball, gymnastics, weight lifting, t...
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Superb microvascular imaging (ultrasound)

Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) or microvascular flow imaging (MVI/MV-flow - the name varying by manufacturers) is a ultrasound imaging technique that aims to visualize low velocity and small diameter blood vessel flow. Unlike conventional color and power Doppler imaging, superb microvascular...
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Crescent sign (lung hydatid)

The crescent sign is described in hydatid disease. When the hydatid cyst erodes the adjacent bronchus or bronchiole, the trapped air between the pericyst and the laminated membrane of the endocyst gives a crescent-shaped rim of air around the cyst, thus is termed the crescent sign 1,2. It can be...
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Tendon rupture

Tendon tears and ruptures are common and sometimes disabling injuries. They can occur within the midsubstance or be an avulsion injury. Pathology The pathophysiology of tendon tears and ruptures is uncertain but is thought to be the end-point of tendinopathy in most cases. Location In theory...
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Turtle sign (fetal shoulder dystocia)

Turtle sign is a clinical sign of fetal shoulder dystocia in which the fetal head retracts 3. The head bobbing, emerging and then pulling back could be conceptualised as similar to a turtle pulling its head into and out of its shell. The sign does not necessarily signify true shoulder dystocia 2.
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Footprint of the rotator cuff

The footprint of the rotator cuff is the insertional anatomy and the common tendon of the rotator cuff. It is an integral part of the stability of the glenohumeral joint. Gross anatomy The rotator cuff footprint involves the convergence of the four rotator cuff tendons, which form a multi-laye...
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Lateral ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow

The lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) of the elbow is a primary stabilizer of the elbow joint to varus and external rotatory stress 1-6. Gross anatomy It is a part of the lateral (radial) collateral ligament complex and located at the posterolateral aspects of the elbow joint. It takes ...
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Drop sign

The drop sign is referred to as an increased ulnohumeral distance (≥4 mm) on a lateral radiograph of the elbow after reduction of elbow dislocation and indicates instability 1-4. History and etymology The drop sign was first described in 2005 by Ralph W Coonrad (fl. 2020), an orthopedic surgeo...
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Calcium volume score

The calcium volume score is a measure to quantify and calculate coronary artery calcium 1-3. Its calculation includes all voxels with a Hounsfield attenuation >130 and this is done by multiplying the volume of each voxel, determined by the area and the slice thickness with the number of voxels ...
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Persistent nephrogram

Persistent nephrograms occur when intravenous contrast media is retained by both kidneys for more than 3 minutes. Terminology Persistent nephrograms are characteristically bilateral and are usually distinguished from delayed nephrograms, which occur unilaterally.  Pathology Etiology systemi...
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Calcium density score

The calcium density score is a measure to quantify coronary artery calcium. Measurement Calcium density itself describes the concentration of calcium in a specific atherosclerotic plaque 1. Calcium density can be calculated by dividing the Agatston score by the total area of calcium. The latte...
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Double anterior cruciate ligament sign

The double anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sign describes a curvilinear, low signal intensity bandlike structure paralleling the anterior cruciate ligament 1-3 and is of rare occurrence 1.   It can be seen in bucket-handle meniscal tears from either the medial or lateral meniscus 1-3. Dependin...
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Empty vertebral body sign

The empty vertebral body sign is referred to as a radiolucency on a vertebral body seen on the AP radiograph in patients with a flexion-distraction injury mechanism 1-3 caused by the absent superposition of the posterior spinal elements onto the vertebral body. In other words, the sign results ...
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Calcium mass score

The calcium mass score was introduced to determine the absolute mass of coronary artery calcium with the help of a cardiac calibration phantom and the use of correction factors 1,4. The method itself comprises the integration of signal above a given threshold 3. Even though higher sensitivity a...
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Medial condyle trochlear offset

Medial condyle trochlear offset (MCTO) is a measurement to assess the height of the medial trochlear facet with respect to the trochlear groove 1. Usage Medial condyle trochlear offset has been described for the assessment of trochlear dysplasia in skeletally immature patients 1. It measures a...
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Meniscotibial ligaments

The meniscotibial ligaments, also known as coronary ligaments, attach the knee menisci to the tibial plateau 1-6 and have a role in rotatory knee stability and anterior tibial translation 7-10. Gross anatomy The meniscotibial ligaments attach the menisci to the tibial condyles at various locat...