Items tagged “cases3”

344 results found
Article

Triangle of Koch

The triangle of Koch or Koch’s triangle is an important landmark for atrioventricular catheter ablation procedures for the localization of the atrioventricular node. Gross anatomy From a right atrial viewpoint, the triangle of Koch is delineated by the hinge of the septal tricuspid valve leafl...
Article

Hypoplastic left anterior descending artery

A hypoplastic left anterior descending artery (LAD) refers to a luminal narrowing or a short course of the left anterior descending artery. Epidemiology Not many cases of a hypoplastic left anterior descending coronary artery are described in the literature. Associations Clinical conditions ...
Article

Atrial septum

The atrial or interatrial septum (IAS) is a fibromuscular anatomical structure dividing the left and right atrium and is of substantial importance for intra- and interatrial conduction. Gross anatomy The true atrial septum is defined by the septal area which could be pierced or crossed without...
Article

Rheumatoid arthritis (cardiac manifestations)

Cardiac manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis are an extra-articular feature of rheumatoid arthritis and are considered prognostically more severe. For a general discussion of rheumatoid arthritis and a particular discussion of its respiratory and musculoskeletal manifestations, please refer t...
Article

Sudden cardiac death

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a term used for an unexpected, non-traumatic fatal event in an otherwise healthy subject. Epidemiology Sudden cardiac death is estimated to account for about 50% of all cardiac deaths with first-time events making up more than 25% 1. The incidence ranges between 0...
Article

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) also known as tricuspid annular motion refers to the displacement of the tricuspid valvular plane in the z-direction, reflects right ventricular longitudinal contraction or shortening. Usage Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion can be me...
Article

Left marginal vein

The left marginal vein also known as the left obtuse marginal vein is one of the tributary veins of the coronary sinus and belongs to the greater coronary venous system. Gross anatomy Located on the lateral wall of the left ventricle, usually courses along with the obtuse marginal branch of th...
Article

Valve of Vieussens

The valve of Vieussens is one of two valves of the coronary sinus, which can be found at the junction to the great cardiac vein in the majority of individuals and might be of clinical importance for specific cardiac catheterization procedures. Variant anatomy It can be found in 60-90% of indiv...
Article

Ectomesenchymoma

Ectomesenchymomas are biphasic or composite malignant soft tissue tumors with rhabdomyosarcoma resembling parts and neuronal or neuroblastic features. Terminology The term ‘gangliorhabdomyosarcoma’ is no longer recommended. Epidemiology Ectomesenchymomas are very rare and usually occur in in...
Article

Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest is the term used for the abrupt loss of cardiac pump function such that an adequate circulation cannot be maintained. Despite recent modest improvements in survival, it usually leads to death, if not immediately treated. Arrests may be in-hospital or out-of-hospital.  Epidemiolog...
Article

Dermal nerve sheath myxoma

Dermal nerve sheath myxomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors usually originating from the skin or subcutaneous tissues. Terminology The previous term was ‘classic or myxoid variant of neurothekeoma’ but data has shown that they are biologically and clinically distinct from neurothekeo...
Article

Neuromuscular choristoma

Neuromuscular choristomas (NMC), also known as benign triton tumors, nerve rhabdomyomas and neuromuscular or ectomesenchymal hamartomas are benign expansile peripheral nerve sheath tumors featuring a tight interconnection of skeletal muscle and nerve fibers within the endoneurial sheath. They al...
Article

Connective tissue disease

The connective tissue diseases or disorders (CTDs), also known as collagen vascular diseases, form a large heterogeneous group of conditions that are linked by a disease process that primarily involves the connective soft tissues of the body and often the vasculature too, due to shared structura...
Article

Juxta-articular myxoma

Juxta-articular myxomas or periarticular myxomas are benign myxoid soft tissue tumors with similarities to intramuscular myxomas. They are classified as tumors of uncertain differentiation. Epidemiology Juxta-articular myxomas are rare and seen over a wide age range with a peak in the fourth t...
Article

Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue

Clear cell sarcomas (CCS) of soft tissue are malignant mesenchymal tumors with melanocytic differentiation and an extraordinary nested growth pattern. They are classified as soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation. Terminology The term ‘malignant melanoma of soft parts’ has been discou...
Article

Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract refers to the portion of the respiratory system that conducts air into and out of the body. It is conventionally divided into upper and lower tracts. The upper respiratory tract (URT), also known as the upper airways, is the collective term for the components of the respir...
Article

Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma

Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (AFH) or angiomatoid fibrous malignant histiocytomas are neoplasms of intermediate biologic potential and are classified as soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation. Epidemiology Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas a rare and account for about 0.3% of all...
Article

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumor of soft parts

Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors (PHAT) of soft parts are locally recurring non-metastasizing neoplasms of intermediate biologic potential and are classified as soft tissue tumors of uncertain lineage. Epidemiology Pleomorphic hyalinizing angiectatic tumors of soft parts a very rare ...
Article

Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumor

Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumors or haemosiderotic fibrohistiocytic lipomatous lesions are locally aggressive soft tissue tumors of uncertain differentiation. Epidemiology Haemosiderotic fibrolipomatous tumors are rare with an estimated incidence of less than 0.2% of all benign lipomatous...
Article

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumor

Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors, also known as rhabdoid tumors of soft tissue or malignant rhabdoid tumors are highly malignant neoplasms of uncertain differentiation mainly seen in infants and children. Epidemiology Extrarenal rhabdoid tumors are very rare and most are found in infants and childre...