Items tagged “cases3”

344 results found
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CT esophagography

CT esophagography is a CT study designed to primarily evaluate the esophagus, particularly in the situation of esophageal trauma and potential perforation. It has been developed partly as an alternative to fluoroscopic barium swallow evaluation in this situation. Indications potential esophage...
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Atypical spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomatous tumor

Atypical spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomatous tumors or atypical spindle cell lipoma are benign adipocytic soft tissue neoplasms with a variable proportion of atypical spindle cells, pleomorphic cells adipocytes and other cells with no risk for dedifferentiation but a low risk of local recurrence...
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Angiofibroma of soft tissue

Angiofibromas of soft tissue are benign fibroblastic soft tissue neoplasms permeated by a vascular network that might be found in the periarticular and articular areas of the lower extremities that have been included as a separate entity in the WHO classification of soft tissue tumors in 2020. ...
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Ischemic fasciitis

Ischemic fasciitis (rare plural: ischemic fasciitides) refers to a reactive pseudosarcomatous fibroblastic or myofibroblastic proliferation associated with physical constraints. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘pseudosarcomatous fibromatosis’ and ‘atypical decu...
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Coronary stent thrombosis

Coronary stent thrombosis or scaffold thrombosis refers to an acute thrombus or occlusion in a coronary segment previously treated with a coronary stent or scaffold. It is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and a major adverse cardiovascular event. Epidemiology C...
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Roesler sign

Roesler sign is the name given to the inferior rib notching seen in coarctation of the aorta. Although by no means pathognomonic, the sign is fairly specific. Although many other causes of inferior rib notching have been recorded most of them are very rare 1. Strictly-speaking it is only called...
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Coronary in-stent restenosis

Coronary in-stent restenosis (ISR) is referred to as an increasing loss of the stented arterial lumen after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary stent placement which requires revascularization. Terminology However, there are different clinical and angiographic definitions: ...
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Intestinal trunk

The intestinal trunk (TA: truncus intestinalis) is an unpaired lymphatic trunk which drains lymph (and chyle) from those portions of the GI tract which receive their blood supply from the celiac and superior mesenteric arteries. In the majority of individuals, the intestinal trunk drains into t...
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Nasal saddle deformity

A nasal saddle deformity refers to a deformed shape of the nose where there is a loss of projection of the cartilaginous and/or bony structure of the dorsum of the nose. While they are typically associated with prior trauma, they have also been described in other settings such as: infections e...
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Coronary microvascular dysfunction

Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) or coronary microvascular disease refers to a wide spectrum of clinical situations with an impairment of the coronary microcirculation and myocardial blood flow in subjects with respective risk factors. It can contribute to or induce myocardial ischemia. ...
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Optic nerve calcification

Optic nerve calcification is a rare radiological finding, with only a short differential diagnosis, many of which have only been described in isolated case reports 1-4. Differential diagnosis optic nerve meningioma optic nerve head drusen idiopathic dural optic nerve sheath calcification ca...
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Vasospastic angina

Vasospastic angina (VSA), variant angina or Prinzmetal angina is a clinical entity that refers to a hyper-reactive response of the epicardial coronary arteries to vasoconstrictor stimuli. Epidemiology Incidence and prevalence seem not entirely explored and are highly variable between certain p...
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Paravalvular leak

A paravalvular leak, paravalvular leakage or paravalvular regurgitation are an abnormal flow between the valvular annulus and the prosthetic heart valve and is a common complication after valvular replacement surgery due to inadequate sealing. Epidemiology Paravaluvar leaks are common, with an...
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Mitral annulus

The mitral annulus (MA) or mitral annular ring refers to a membrane-like structure of the atrioventricular junction, that forms a hinge for the mitral leaflets and separates the left atrial and ventricular myocardial walls. Gross anatomy The mitral annulus is a ‘D-shaped’ structure resembling ...
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Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration

Myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve, myxomatous mitral valve disease or simply myxomatous mitral valve is a non-inflammatory progressive alteration of the mitral valve structure associated with mitral valve prolapse and mitral insufficiency. Termino...
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Mitral valve leaflet calcification

Mitral valve leaflet calcification or mitral leaflet calcification refers to the deposition of calcium on the mitral valvular leaflets as opposed to mitral annular calcification in the mitral annulus. It has been associated with mitral stenosis 1,2.  Epidemiology Mitral leaflet calcification h...
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Papillary muscle rupture

Papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a dangerous complication that can evolve as a consequence of myocardial infarction or infective endocarditis leading to severe acute mitral or tricuspid regurgitation leading to left or right-sided heart failure. Epidemiology Papillary muscle rupture is rare a...
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Flail leaflet

Flail leaflet or leaflet flail refers to an abnormally increased leaflet mobility of the atrioventricular valves associated with valvular prolapse and a systolic excursion of the leaflet tip or edge into the atria. Pathology Flail leaflet can be seen in leaflets of the mitral and tricuspid val...
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Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix is a rare type of invasive cervical cancer. These are very aggressive tumors with rapid lymph nodal metastasis 1,2. Epidemiology Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix account for approximately ~2% of tumors of the cervix seen in the females of reproduct...
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Mitral annular dilation

Mitral annular dilation refers to an increased mitral annulus in relation to the size of the mitral valvular leaflets and is a potential cause for mitral regurgitation. Epidemiology Associations Mitral annular dilation is seen in the following clinical conditions 1-3: secondary mitral regurg...