Items tagged “cases3”

143 results found
Article

Linear scleroderma

Linear scleroderma, also known as scleroderma en coup de saber, is a very focal form of scleroderma classically characterized by a linear band of atrophy involving the frontal or frontoparietal scalp and subjacent thinned calvaria associated with ipsilateral focal brain abnormalities.  In the b...
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Pelvic masses in females

Pelvic masses in females carry a broad differential diagnosis: benign adnexal cyst leiomyoma pelvic malignancy dermoid endometriosis pelvic inflammatory disease tubo-ovarian abscess hydrosalpinx pregnancy Extragynaecological masses, e.g. colorectal carcinoma, appendicular abscess, lymp...
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Diaphragm

The diaphragm is the dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity, enclosing the inferior thoracic aperture. Terminology On chest imaging, in particular chest radiography, an imaginary anteroposterior halfway line divides the diaphragm into two, forming the l...
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HELLP syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy-related condition and is an abbreviation for: haemolysis elevated liver enzymes and  low platelets It is considered a severe and life-threatening form of pre-eclampsia although it can occur without co-existing pre-eclampsia.  Epidemiology The estimated inciden...
Article

Periosteal osteosarcoma

Periosteal osteosarcoma is a form of surface osteosarcoma.  Epidemiology It is the second most common type of juxtacortical or surface osteosarcoma after parosteal osteosarcoma and accounts for 1.5% of all osteosarcoma cases. It affects a slightly older age group (10-20 years) cf. conventional...
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Thrombocytopenia with absent radius syndrome

Thrombocytopenia with absent radius (TAR) syndrome is primarily characterized by the following two features: fetal thrombocytopenia absent fetal radii (bilaterally) with the presence of both thumbs Epidemiology The condition is extremely rare with an estimated incidence of 0.4 per 100,000 bi...
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Bilobed testis

Bilobed testis, also known as incomplete unilateral polyorchidism, is a very rare congenital variant in children, and considered to be an incomplete form of polyorchidism. Epidemiology Associations malignancy cryptorchidism inguinal hernia hydrocele infertility varicocele testicular tor...
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Supernumerary ribs

Supernumerary ribs occur most commonly as a cervical rib arising from C7 or a lumbar rib arising from L1. In extremely rare situations, there can be sacral, coccygeal, intrathoracic, or aberrant lumbar ribs 3. Rarely supernumerary ribs (cervical and lumbar ribs aside) have been found as 'normal'...
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Sports injuries - cricket

Cricket is a popular game in Commonwealth countries. Sports injuries in this game can be associated with three positional aspects of the game: bowling, batting or fielding. Radiologists should know the different kind of injuries related to this game for a better clinical association. Injuries ca...
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Unroofed coronary sinus

An unroofed coronary sinus, a.k.a. coronary sinus type ASD, is a rare variant of atrial septal defect (ASD). The atrial wall between the coronary sinus and left atrium is either partially or completely absent, resulting in a right-to-left shunt. It is associated with persistent left-sided SVC a...
Article

Retropulsed fragment

A retropulsed fragment is any vertebral fracture fragment that is displaced into the spinal canal, thereby potentially causing spinal cord injury. They usually arise from the vertebral body with or without a portion of the pedicle, and are displaced posteriorly, hence the prefix 'retro'.
Article

Epicardial lipomatosis

Epicardial lipomatosis or epicardial lipomatous hypertrophy is a form of cardiac lipomatosis and is characterized by the accumulation of non-encapsulated mature adipose tissue in the epicardial space due to hyperplasia of lipocytes. Its exact etiology is not known, but it may be associated with ...
Article

Tuberculous abscess

Tuberculous abscesses are an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis, most often encountered in immunocompromised individuals (e.g. HIV/AIDS). Unlike the far more common tuberculomas (tuberculous granulomas), tuberculous abscesses contain pus with abundant identifiable organisms 1. The capsule tha...
Article

Superb microvascular imaging (ultrasound)

Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) or microvascular flow imaging (MVI/MV-flow - the name varying by manufacturers) is a recently developed ultrasound imaging technique that aims to visualize low velocity and small diameter blood vessel flow. Unlike conventional color and power Doppler imaging, s...
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Tendon rupture

Tendon tears and ruptures are common and sometimes disabling injuries. They can occur within the midsubstance or be an avulsion injury. Pathology The pathophysiology of tendon tears and ruptures is uncertain but is thought to be the end-point of tendinopathy in most cases. Location In theory...
Article

Turtle sign (fetal shoulder dystocia)

Turtle sign is a clinical sign of fetal shoulder dystocia in which the fetal head retracts 3. The head bobbing, emerging and then pulling back could be conceptualised as similar to a turtle pulling its head into and out of its shell. The sign does not necessarily signify true shoulder dystocia 2.
Article

Footprint of the rotator cuff

The footprint of the rotator cuff is referred to as the insertional anatomy of the rotator cuff. It is an integral part of the stability of the glenohumeral joint. Gross anatomy The rotator cuff footprint involves the convergence of the four rotator cuff muscle tendons, which form a multi-laye...
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Drop sign

The drop sign is referred to as an increased ulnohumeral distance (≥4 mm) on a lateral radiograph of the elbow after reduction of elbow dislocation and indicates instability 1-4. History and etymology The drop sign was first described in 2005 by Ralph W Coonrad (fl. 2020), an orthopedic surgeo...
Article

Calcium volume score

The calcium volume score is referred to as a measure to quantify coronary artery calcium and is a variant to calculate coronary artery calcium 1-3. Its calculation includes all voxels with a Hounsfield attenuation >130 and this is done by multiplying the volume of each voxel, determined by the ...
Article

Persistent nephrogram

Persistent nephrograms occur when intravenous contrast media is retained by both kidneys for more than 3 minutes. Terminology Persistent nephrograms are characteristically bilateral and are usually distinguished from delayed nephrograms, which occur unilaterally.  Pathology Etiology systemi...

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