Items tagged “cases”

5,325 results found
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CT foot (protocol)

The CT foot protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the fore and mid-foot and is almost always performed as a non-contrast study. It can also be combined with a CT ankle protocol or can be acquired as dual-energy CT depending on the clinical question. Note: This article aim...
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CT knee (protocol)

The CT knee protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the knee the femoral condyles or the tibial plateau and the proximal tibiofibular joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can also be combined with a CT arthrogram in cases of suspected internal derangement...
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Opalski syndrome

Opalski syndrome is a very rare brainstem stroke syndrome similar to Babinski-Nageotte syndrome, however, the medullary lesion extends beyond decussation of the corticospinal tracts into the upper cervical cord. Clinical presentation Opalski syndrome is considered to be a spreading of the “Wal...
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CT shoulder (protocol)

The CT shoulder protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the shoulder joint. It is often performed as a non-contrast study. It can be combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of labral injuries or the rotator cuff if MRI is contraindicated or in a postoperative setting whe...
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CT cervical spine (protocol)

The CT cervical spine or C-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the cervical spine. It is usually performed as a non-contrast study. In certain situations, it might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT angiography of the cerebral arteries or a CT of the neck....
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CT lumbar spine (protocol)

The CT lumbar spine or L-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the lumbar spine. As a separate examination, it is most often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT abdomen. It also forms a part of a polytrauma CT or mi...
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CT thoracic spine (protocol)

The CT thoracic spine or T-spine protocol serves as an examination for the assessment of the thoracic spine. As a separate examination, it is often performed as a non-contrast study. It might be combined or simultaneously acquired with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis as part of a trauma or...
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CT neck (protocol)

The CT neck protocol serves as a radiological examination of the head and neck. This protocol is usually performed as a contrast study and might be acquired separately or combined with a CT chest or CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. On rare occasions, it will be performed as a non-contrast study. Dependi...
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Columnar cell change without atypia (breast)

Columnar cell change without atypia breast lesions are characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by columnar epithelial cells which substitute the normal cuboid epithelial layer.  They are also associated with prominent apical cytoplasmic snouts and intraluminal secretions. ...
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Columnar cell hyperplasia of the breast

Columnar cell hyperplasia is part of the spectrum of columnar cell lesions of the breast characterized by enlarged terminal ductal lobular units lined by stratified (more than two layers) columnar epithelium, cellular crowding or overlapping without atypia. It can also form tufts or mounds with...
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Flat epithelial atypia

Flat epithelial atypia is an entity that comprises any columnar cell lesion with low-grade cytologic atypia. Terminology Flat epithelial atypia was introduced in the 3rd edition of WHO Classification of Breast Tumors in 2003, to substitute terms such as clinging carcinoma monomorphous type, at...
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Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome

Prefemoral fat pad impingement syndrome, also known as supratrochlear / posterior suprapatellar fat pad impingement syndrome, is one of the fat pad impingement syndromes of the knee, specifically involving the prefemoral fat pad. Clinical presentation Patients present with anterior knee pain e...
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CT pelvis (protocol)

The CT pelvis protocol serves as an outline for the acquisition of a pelvic CT. As a separate examination, it might be performed as a non-contrast or contrast study or might be combined with a CT hip or rarely with a CT cystogram. A pelvic CT might be also conducted as a part of other scans such...
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CT hand and wrist (protocol)

The CT hand and wrist protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the wrist and is often performed as a non-contrast study and less often as a contrast-enhanced study. A CT wrist can be also conducted as a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of ligamentous injuries and the triangul...
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CT elbow (protocol)

The CT elbow protocol serves as an examination for the bony assessment of the elbow and is usually performed as a non-contrast study. It can be also combined with a CT arthrogram for the evaluation of chondral and osteochondral injuries.  Note: This article aims to frame a general concept of a ...
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CT pancreas (protocol)

The CT pancreas protocol serves as an outline for a dedicated examination of the pancreas. As a separate examination, it is usually conducted as a biphasic contrast study and might be conducted as a part of other scans such as  CT abdomen-pelvis, CT chest-abdomen-pelvis. Note: This article aims...
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Phase-sensitive inversion recovery

Phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR), also known as phase-corrected inversion recovery (PCIR), refers to an inversion recovery MRI pulse sequence that accounts for the positive and negative polarities and preserves the information of tissue magnetization during the recovery from the initial...
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CT abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the whole abdomen including the pelvis. It is one of the most common CT protocols for any clinical questions related to the abdomen and/or in routine and emergencies. It forms also an integral part of trauma and oncologic ...
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CT chest abdomen-pelvis (protocol)

The CT chest-abdomen-pelvis protocol serves as an outline for an examination of the trunk covering the chest,  abdomen and pelvis. It is one of the most common CT examinations conducted in routine and emergencies. It can be combined with a CT angiogram. Note: This article aims to frame a genera...
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Gallbladder cancer (staging)

Staging of gallbladder cancer is often done according to the AJCC / TNM. Staging T: tumor Tis: tumor only in the epithelium (the inner layer of the gallbladder) and has not grown into deeper layers of the gallbladder T1: tumor has grown into the lamina propria or the muscle layer (muscularis...