Items tagged “cases”
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Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue
Undifferentiated small round cell sarcomas of bone and soft tissue are a group of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors characterized by small round cell morphology. They comprise the following tumors 1: Ewing sarcoma round cell sarcoma with EWSR1-non-ETS fusions CIC-rearranged sarcoma sarco...
Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone
Genetic tumor syndromes of soft tissue and bone are a group of genetic disorders and disease syndromes associated with neoplasms that display different features than their sporadic counterparts. These genetic syndromes have been classified separately by the World Health Organization (WHO) and co...
Godtfredsen syndrome is a rare syndrome of abducens and hypoglossal nerve palsies that localizes to a clival mass. Clinical presentation The classic clinical presentation includes 1-3: abducens nerve palsy: diplopia worse when horizontal gaze is directed towards the affected side hypoglossal...
Anterior resection of the rectum
Anterior resection is a surgical procedure to resect the rectum and sigmoid colon while preserving the anal sphincter complex. Indications cancer of the rectum (most commonly) severe diverticular disease Procedure Although historically an open procedure, most anterior resections are now per...
Lateral mesencephalic vein
The lateral mesencephalic veins (LMV) form an important supratentorial-infratentorial anastomosis from the basal veins of Rosenthal to the superior petrosal sinus. Gross anatomy The lateral mesencephalic veins usually course through or near the lateral mesencephalic sinus. They receive venous ...
Veins of the brainstem
The veins of the brainstem drain the medulla, the pons and the mesencephalon, including the cerebral peduncles, tegmentum and quadrigeminal plate. They are characterized by several variations and feature multiple connections draining into the inferior, medial superior petrosal sinuses or form a ...
Secondary osteosarcomas are osteosarcomas growing on abnormal bone in the setting of various underlying osseous disorders. Terminology Other acceptable terms include Paget sarcoma, osteosarcoma in Paget disease of bone or radiation-associated osteosarcoma, if applicable. The terms postirradiat...
The term trauma (plural: traumas) or traumatic injury refers to damage or harm of sudden onset caused by external factors or forces requiring medical attention. Polytrauma or multiple trauma has been defined as a pattern of potentially life-threatening injuries involving at least two body regio...
Persistent descending mesocolon
Persistent descending mesocolon is defined as the failure of fusion of the mesentery of the descending colon with the lateral and posterior parietal peritoneum 1. Gross anatomy Persistent descending mesocolon is a rare congenital anomaly, in which the primitive dorsal mesocolon does not fuse w...
Dedifferentiated chordomas are biphasic malignant tumors composed of notochordal and high-grade sacomatous components. Epidemiology Dedifferentiated chordomas are very rare tumors that might be seen in recurrences or after radiotherapy 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on typical imaging...
Extra-abdominal desmoid-type fibromatosis
Published 17 Jul 2021
Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma
Cardiac undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas are highly malignant mesenchymal tumors of the heart. Terminology Terms that are no longer recommended for use include ‘intimal sarcoma’, ‘undifferentiated sarcoma’ and ‘undifferentiated spindle cell sarcoma’ 1. Epidemiology Cardiac undifferentia...
Pediatric thumb (lateral view)
The lateral thumb view for pediatrics is part of a two view series examining the distal metacarpal, distal and proximal phalanges. Indications This projection is useful for diagnosing fractures and localizing foreign bodies in pediatric patients. It also presents as an orthogonal view of the ...
Mediastinal seminomas or mediastinal germinomas are primary malignant germ cell tumors of the mediastinum. Epidemiology Mediastinal seminomas are rare mediastinal tumors and account for up to one-third of primary malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors 1. They are almost only found in males ≥10...
Mediastinal yolk sac tumor
Mediastinal yolk sac tumors or yolk sac tumors of the mediastinum are malignant non-seminomatous germ cell tumors primarily growing in the mediastinum. Terminology The term ‘endodermal sinus tumor’ is not recommended. Epidemiology Mediastinal yolk sac tumors are rare mediastinal tumors. In a...
Tularemia is a rare and highly virulent febrile zoonotic bacterial infection caused by Francisella tularensis, which has been developed as a bioweapon by several countries. It can infect the skin and mucous membranes, lungs and intestine and cause systemic disease and death. Tularemia is a notif...
Right ventricular fractional area change
The right ventricular fractional area change is a two-dimensional measure of right ventricular global systolic function usually made on an echocardiogram. It is obtained from the apical four-chamber view and is calculated as RV- fractional area change = (end-diastolic area - end-systolic area) ...
Spring ligament complex injury
Spring ligament complex injuries or calcaneonavicular ligament injuries refer to stretching sprains, tears, or ruptures of the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament complex and can affect one or more of the three portions. Epidemiology Spring ligament complex injuries are most commonly associated...
Accessory muscles of the ankle
Accessory muscles of the ankle are muscular anatomical variants that are usually asymptomatic but rarely cause symptoms or might be encountered on imaging studies. The following accessory muscles around the ankle have been described 1-4: posteromedial/flexor compartment accessory flexor digit...
Peroneocalcaneus internus muscle
The peroneocalcaneus internus muscle, also known as fibulocalcaneus internus muscle of MacAlister, is a rare accessory muscle of the ankle and an anatomical variant with an estimated prevalence of about 1%. It is often bilateral if present. Summary origin: the medial surface of the distal lowe...