Items tagged “cases”

5,296 results found
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Posterior instrumentation and fusion (scoliosis)

Posterior instrumentation and fusion is a surgical technique to improve spinal curvature in scoliosis patients. Procedure The vertebral column is manipulated into the desired position and held in place with metalwork namely pedicle screws and/or hooks transfixed with rods with or without in si...
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Quadratus femoris injection (technique)

Quadratus femoris injections under image guidance ensure precise delivery of an injectate and ensure the sciatic nerve is avoided during the procedure.  CT and ultrasound can be used, with ultrasound becoming more challenging in those with larger body habitus. Indications therapeutic for ischi...
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Anectasis

Anectasis is a term that describes primary atelectasis, as distinct from secondary atelectasis. Anectasis refers to the failure of the lung to expand fully at birth. See also atelectasis
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Implant malposition

Implant malposition or hardware malposition refer to inappropriately positioned implants or hardware. It can be associated with various complications related to injury of adjacent structures. Terminology For implants with variant positions and no complications or increased risk, the term devia...
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Flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus

The flexor carpi radialis brevis (FCRB) vel profundus muscle is an accessory muscle of the forearm and wrist and a normal anatomical variant. Epidemiology The flexor carpi radialis brevis vel profundus muscle has been found in 2-8% of anatomical dissections 1-3. Summary origin: anterior surf...
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Pituitary height grading

Pituitary height grading describes degrees of loss of the pituitary height (concavity), which encompasses gradations of (partially) empty sella. Grading As originally described by Yuh et al. 1, the loss of pituitary height (h) and the sellar height (H) are measured on a midsagittal T1-weighted...
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Accessory brachialis muscle

An accessory brachialis muscle, also known as brachialis accessorius muscle, is a very rare accessory muscle of the elbow and an anatomical variant. Summary origin: anterior surface of the lower humeral diaphysis course: variably medial or lateral to the brachialis muscle insertion: variable...
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Distal radioulnar joint instability

Distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability refers to excessive painful mobility in the distal radioulnar joint usually as a result of a previous traumatic injury or bony malunion. Epidemiology Distal radioulnar joint instability is common but often misdiagnosed 1. Associations Distal radioul...
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Intercritical gout

Intercritical gout is the asymptomatic stage between attacks of acute gouty arthritis. Clinical presentation During the asymptomatic phase, the joints may be non-tender and without erythema or swelling. Patients can experience multiple gout attacks with asymptomatic periods of several months i...
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In situ spinal fusion

In situ spinal fusion is, as the name suggests, where fusion is performed without a change in alignment. It is a technique used to treat: isthmic spondylolisthesis 1 osteogenesis imperfecta 2
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In situ contouring

In situ contouring is a surgical technique used in thoracolumbar scoliosis surgery and thoracolumbar fracture reduction and fixation.  Procedure Thoracolumbar scoliosis surgery The key of this technique is to " make the rod take the shape of the spine and then to make the spine take the shape...
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Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure

Vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) procedure is a surgical technique that was initially developed to treat thoracic insufficiency syndrome and then it was used in congenital scoliosis with rib abnormalities, and has since been successfully used to treat early-onset scoliosis wit...
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Anterior vertebral body tether (AVBT)

Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT) is a fusionless technique for treating and managing idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature patients to reduce the typical side effects of rigid posterior fusion (such as loss of spinal motion and risks adjacent segment degeneration later in life) 1,3...
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Synostosis

The term synostosis (plural: synostoses) refers to the fusion of bones usually at cartilaginous or fibro-osseous connections. Synostoses occur physiologically, as asymptomatic anatomical variants or might be abnormal and cause clinical symptoms as a functional loss. The latter is clinically sign...
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Discectomy

Discectomy is the most common surgery for lower back pain performed for the treatment of disk herniations. It is often combined with other spinal procedures as laminotomy or foraminotomy or artificial disk replacement and other forms of spinal fusion. Discectomy techniques can be generally subdi...
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Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a spectrum of developmental disorders that result from an insult to the developing brain in utero or early life. Characteristically, muscle tone and movement are affected but there is wide variation in the degree to which each individual is affected 1. Epidemiology The incide...
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Low back pain

Low back pain, lumbar or lumbosacral pain is an extremely common clinical symptom most common musculoskeletal condition affecting the quality of life that can be found in all age groups. It represents the leading cause of disability worldwide 1-3. Epidemiology Low back pain is a very common sy...
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Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)

Amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) represents a variety of imaging features identified in patients with Alzheimer disease being treated with novel amyloid lowering therapies such as the monoclonal antibodies bapineuzumab, solanezumab and aducanumab 1-4.  Clinical presentation In most...
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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a generic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and antiplatelet agent. It is one of the most-widely if not the most commonly used drug in the world and is listed on the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines 1-4. It is used as an over-the-coun...
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Spinal instability (overview)

Spinal instability is a broad term with no generally agreed-upon definition but can be thought of the potential for or actual abnormal segmental spinal motion.  Terminology Spinal microinstability refers to abnormal segmental movement without bony changes 1.  Pathology Spinal instability is ...