Items tagged “cases”

5,301 results found
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Inferior lateral genicular artery

The inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA) is the lateral counterpart of the inferior medial genicular artery and supplies the inferolateral structures of the knee and the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: cutaneous perforating branches supply: inferolater...
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Inferior medial genicular artery

The inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA) is the medial counterpart of the inferior lateral genicular artery and supplies the inferomedial structures of the knee including the medial tibial condyle and participates in the supply of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal arter...
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Auricular perichondritis

Auricular perichondritis, also known as perichondritis of the ear or pinna, is an infection or inflammation of the cartilage-bearing part of the external ear. Terminology The term perichondritis, strictly speaking, refers to inflammation involving the perichondrium. However, a distinction is o...
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Superior lateral genicular artery

The superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA) is the lateral counterpart of the superior medial genicular artery and supplies the superolateral structures of the knee and participates in the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior and...
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Superior medial genicular artery

The superior medial genicular artery (SMGA) is the medial counterpart of the superior lateral genicular artery and participates in the supply of the superomedial structures of the knee and the vascularization of the patella. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery branches: anterior ...
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Carcinoma of the Littré glands

Carcinoma of the Littré glands is rare. The Littré (urethral) glands of the penis may be the origin of cancers of the penis, usually adenocarcinomas 1. Epidemiology There are only a few scattered case reports of true Littré gland malignancy, although it is probably under-reported due to the fa...
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Axial spondyloarthritis

Axial spondyloarthrititis (SpA) is a clinical subset of the seronegative spondyloarthritides that present primarily with back pain and morning stiffness. There is a long delay, on average 14 years, between symptoms onset and diagnosis 1. Epidemiology The prevalence of axial SpA is ~1% 1. Age o...
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Middle genicular artery

The middle genicular artery (MGA) is one of the arteries of the knee joint and is a major supplicant of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments. Summary location: knee origin: popliteal artery supply: cruciate ligaments Gross anatomy The middle genicular artery originates from the an...
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Vestibular paroxysmia

Vestibular paroxysmia describes a clinical syndrome of sudden and stereotyped episodes of vertigo-type symptoms which usually last for less than one minute, often attributed to being a nerve compression syndrome affecting the vestibular nerve. Epidemiology Vestibular paroxysmia most commonly m...
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Neonatal aortic thrombosis

Neonatal aortic thrombosis is a rare life-threatening condition that can affect neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Epidemiology The incidence of neonatal aortic thrombosis is 0.2% of neonates admitted to the NICU. Risk factors umbilical arterial catheters (UAC): ~8...
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Lymphangiomatosis

Lymphangiomatosis is a rare mesenchymal disorder that is characterized by developmental "malformation" of multiple lymphatic channels (usually with dilatation). Terminology If lymphatic channels are purely dilated and not malformed the term lymphangiectasia is usually used. If lymphangiomatosi...
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Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions

Fluid-fluid levels in liver lesions are a rare appearance of both benign and malignant conditions. Differential diagnosis benign complicated hepatic cyst 2 hepatic abscess 2 chronic hepatic hematoma 3 biliary cystadenoma 3 hepatic hemangioma (very rare) 2 malignant cystic/necrotic hepat...
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Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma

Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subtype renal cell carcinoma. Epidemiology Generally uncommon but thought to be the fourth most common histologic type of renal cell carcinoma at the time of new classification (c. 2016) 1. Pathology This subtype is characterized by low-grade, c...
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Fosbury flop tear of the rotator cuff

Fosbury flop tears of the rotator cuff are full-thickness rotator cuff tears with a reversed superomedial or flipped orientation of the torn tendon stump. Epidemiology Fosbury flop tears are uncommon with a prevalence of ~2.5% of all rotator cuff tears 1-3. Diagnosis The diagnosis is suggest...
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Interstitial cells of Cajal

The interstitial cells of Cajal are mesenchymal cells closely apposed to neural and smooth muscle cells of the gut. They form a heterogeneous group with differing ultrastructure and functions. One cell type has an ancillary neural function as a gastrointestinal pacemaker, generating electrical s...
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Tibial shaft fracture

Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1.  Pathology Mechanism  Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
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Auriculocondylar syndrome

Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
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Non-pulsatile tinnitus

Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
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Pseudoneuroma sign (plantar plate tear)

The pseudoneuroma sign is an indirect sign of plantar plate tears at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) on MRI. This sign refers to pericapsular ill-defined and eccentric to the intermetatarsal space soft tissue thickening and is helpful for raising the accurate diagnosis of a plantar plate te...
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AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures

The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...