Items tagged “cases”
5,341 results found
Interstitial cells of Cajal
The interstitial cells of Cajal are mesenchymal cells closely apposed to neural and smooth muscle cells of the gut. They form a heterogeneous group with differing ultrastructure and functions. One cell type has an ancillary neural function as a gastrointestinal pacemaker, generating electrical s...
Tibial shaft fracture
Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and the second most common type of open fractures (second only to open phalanx fractures) 1. Pathology Mechanism Typically involve high-energy mechanisms such as road traffic accidents (incidence 43%) or sports 1. These are usua...
Auriculocondylar syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome primarily characterized by malformed ears and mandibular condyle aplasia/hypoplasia. Pathology This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease resulting from GNAI3 or PLCB4 gene defects. This affects facial development especially the 1st an...
Non-pulsatile tinnitus is a form of tinnitus where there is a continuous ringing sensation of the ears. It is thought to have a considerable subjective component in many individuals. Pathology Many factors have been postulated, inclusive of 1-4: cerumen impaction middle ear infection medica...
Pseudoneuroma sign (plantar plate tear)
The pseudoneuroma sign is an indirect sign of plantar plate tears at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) on MRI. This sign refers to pericapsular ill-defined and eccentric to the intermetatarsal space soft tissue thickening and is helpful for raising the accurate diagnosis of a plantar plate te...
AO/OTA classification of pelvic ring fractures
The AO/OTA classification is one of the systems for classifying pelvic ring fractures. Like other fractures, they are divided into three groups subject to the severity and complexity of the respective injury 1: type A: intact posterior arch A1: a pelvic or innominate bone avulsion fracture A1...
Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia
Deferoxamine-induced bone dysplasia refers to abnormal bone development that may be present in patients undergoing iron-chelation therapy with deferoxamine. Deferoxamine is often used in patients with β thalassemia major for the prevention and treatment of transfusion-related secondary hemochrom...
Rib-within-a-rib appearance refers to a feature that may be present on plain radiographs of the patients with β thalassemia. As the name suggests, the ribs take on an appearance of having another rib superimposed. The phenomenon is usually visible in the anterior and middle segments of the ribs ...
The atrial volumes refer to the blood volumes of the left or right atrium and the atrial volume index is the respective atrial volume corrected for the body surface area (BSA). Usage Atrial volumes are measured for the assessment of many congenital and acquired cardiac conditions causing left ...
Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury
Perivascular adductor longus muscle injury is an infrequent type of injury to the adductor longus muscle, which are poorly and infrequently reported in literature 1-3, and may as a result remain underdiagnosed and undertreated. Terminology Adductor longus originates from the external surface o...
Intradiploic encephaloceles are a very rare form of encephalocele where there is herniation of brain tissue into the diploic space but not beyond. They have usually been described post-trauma but have also rarely been described in non-traumatic situations 1. Pathology These result from brain p...
Osseointegrated implants (OI) are endosteal implants characterized by porous surfaces that allow a direct structural connection between bone and implant without interposed soft tissue and ingrowth and interdigitation of the newly formed lamellar bone. Osseointegration has been defined as direct...
Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke
Diffusion-negative acute ischemic stroke refers to a clinically diagnosed acute ischemic stroke without cerebral restricted diffusion on DWI on brain MRI. Although DWI is highly sensitive for acute ischemic strokes, it fails in a minority of cases in its detection 1,2. Epidemiology It is not ...
Cholecystocolonic fistulas are most commonly a rare late complication of gallstone disease, resulting from an abnormal communication between the gallbladder and the colon. It is the second most common cholecystoenteric fistula after cholecystoduodenal fistulas 1. Clinical presentation These m...
Claw toe deformity
Claw toe deformities are hyperextension of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the foot with hyperflexion of the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints 1-3. It is considered more severe but less common than hammer toe deformity 1. Pathology Associations neuromuscular imbalance, e.g Charcot-...
Endometriosis - rectus abdominis
Published 10 Nov 2021
A blast crisis or lymphoid blast crisis refers to the transition of chronic or accelerated phase chronic myeloid leukemia to acute leukemia. It is usually characterized by ≥30% blasts in the bone marrow or peripheral bloodor development of extramedullary disease outside of the spleen Among pa...
Dent disease is a very rare inherited renal disorder that is characterized by proximal tubule dysfunction. Clinical presentation polyuria hypercalciuria, renal stones and nephrocalcinosis proteinuria, although not presenting with nephrotic syndrome glucosuria aminoaciduria phosphaturia c...
GABAA receptor antibody encephalitis
GABAA receptor antibody (anti-GABAAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis characterized by a severe seizure disorder and distinctive radiographic features. Epidemiology Given the rarity of the condition, epidemiological data pertaining to anti-GABAAR encephalitis is not well established...
Night sweats, also known as sleep hyperhidrosis, are a common clinical complaint and may herald malignancy, especially lymphoma, or infections. Patients typically report waking up in the night with sweating so severe that their clothes and bed sheets are soaked through ("drenching sweats") and n...