Items tagged “cases”

5,336 results found
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Colorectal cancer (staging)

Colorectal carcinoma staging can be performed using two systems. The traditional Dukes staging system has largely been replaced by the TNM system but is nonetheless often used clinically. Staging Dukes (Astler-Coller modification) stage A: confined to mucosa stage B: through muscularis propr...
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Congenital facial palsy

A congenital facial palsy is an uncommon cause of neonatal asymmetric crying facies, which are more frequently due to absence or hypoplasia of the depressor anguli oris muscle, often associated with other congenital anomalies.  Epidemiology Congenital facial palsy is reported with an incidence...
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Cotton wool appearance (bone)

The cotton wool appearance is a plain film sign of Paget disease and results from thickened, disorganized trabeculae which lead to areas of sclerosis in a previously lucent area of bone, typically the skull. These sclerotic patches are poorly defined and fluffy. See also Other Paget disease re...
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Cowdry bodies

Cowdry bodies are eosinophilic or basophilic neuronal intranuclear inclusions composed of nucleic acid and protein, this cytopathic changes are considered a hallmark of viral infection.1. Pathology Cowdry bodies are in fact fixation artifacts and not directly the result of the intracellular vi...
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Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm

Cricopharyngeal muscle spasm is also known as cricopharyngeal achalasia, although some authors distinguish between these entities, and may present as a cause of dysphagia. Terminology There is confusing use of the terms cricopharyngeal muscle spasm, cricopharyngeal achalasia and cricopharyngea...
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Cystic mediastinal masses

The differential diagnosis for cystic masses of the mediastinum include: foregut duplication cysts bronchogenic cyst esophageal duplication cyst neuroenteric cyst pericardial cyst meningocele lymphangioma thymic cyst cystic teratoma of mediastinum cystic degeneration of an intrathoraci...
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Cystic renal diseases

Cystic renal disease can be confusing. There are many conditions, many of which have similar names or are eponymous, and with a few exceptions, are relatively rare. It is easiest to think of them into two separate demographic: pediatric cystic renal diseases adult cystic renal disease
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Denervation changes in muscles

Denervation changes in muscles or denervation myopathy can be observed in a number of settings and results from partial or complete loss of innervation. There is a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations: temporary or permanent symptomatic or asymptomatic. Pathology Causes include 2: neur...
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Azygo-esophageal recess deviation

The azygoesophageal recess (AER) is formed by the interface between the right lung and the mediastinal reflection of the azygos vein and oesphagus. The line has a variable appearance: in its upper third, it deviates to the right, where it may either be straight or concave relative to the right ...
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Disorganized periosteal reaction

Disorganized or complex periosteal reaction has spicules with random orientation and appearance. It is often seen in highly aggressive processes. Pathology It has been associated with: osteosarcoma metastasis osteomyelitis chondrosarcoma Ewing sarcoma stress fracture malignant fibrous h...
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Dorello canal

Dorello canal channels the abducens nerve (CN VI) from the pontine cistern to the cavernous sinus.  Gross anatomy Dorello canal is found at the medial most end of the petrous ridge at the confluence of the inferior petrosal, basal, and cavernous sinuses. Boundaries superiorly: petrosphenoida...
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Double decidual sac sign

The double decidual sac sign (DDSS) is a useful feature on early pregnancy ultrasound to confirm an early intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) when the yolk sac or embryo is still not visualized. It consists of the decidua parietalis (lining the uterine cavity) and decidua capsularis (lining the gestati...
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Double line sign

The double line sign is a pathognomonic MRI finding seen at the periphery of a region of osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis, bone infarct), representing the border between the viable and non-viable bone 4. It is best seen on T2 and T2 FS sequences and consists of two serpentine lines: an inner br...
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Ductus diverticulum

Aortic ductus diverticulum is a developmental outpouching of the thoracic aorta which may be mistaken for an acute aortic injury. Gross anatomy It is usually seen at the anteromedial aspect of the aorta at site of the aortic isthmus, where the ligamentum arteriosum attaches. It is also the sit...
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Dural sinus occlusive disease

Dural sinus occlusive disease (DSOD) is an infective form of dural sinus thrombosis (thrombophlebitis) commonly seen in the setting of acute otomastoiditis. It typically presents with: severe headaches high fevers sixth nerve palsy - due to involvement of Dorello's canal altered conscious st...
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Echogenic fetal bowel

Echogenic fetal bowel is an observation in antenatal ultrasound imaging, in which fetal bowel appears to be brighter than it is supposed to be. It is a soft marker for trisomy 21 and has several other associations. When observed, it needs to be interpreted in the context of other associated abno...
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Edwards syndrome

Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, along with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Patau syndrome (trisomy 13), make up the only three autosomal trisomies to be compatible with extrauterine life in non-mosaic forms, albeit in the case of Edward syndrome only for a week or so.  Epidemiology ...
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Empty gestational sac

Empty gestational sacs can be due to a number of causes: anembryonic pregnancy (also known as "blighted ovum") early pregnancy (intrauterine): by 5.5 weeks gestational age, a yolk sac should be identifiable by transvaginal ultrasound pseudogestational sac with an ectopic pregnancy gestationa...
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Endobronchial metastases

Endobronchial metastases are an uncommon form of intrathoracic metastases. They are much less common than intrapulmonary metastases. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation varies and includes: hemoptysis cough post-obstructive pneumonitis from distal obstruction Pathology Frequen...
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Endolymphatic sac tumor

Endolymphatic sac tumors are very rare, locally invasive tumors of endolymphatic sac. Early detection of these tumors is critical, because early surgical intervention may prevent further hearing loss. Endolymphatic sac tumors do not metastasize but are highly locally aggressive.  Epidemiology ...